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Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 113–129 | Cite as

From forest to agroforest and logger to agroforester: a case study

  • S. Fujisaka
  • E. Wollenberg
Article

Abstract

This paper examines interactive change and adaptation of human and natural systems in two pioneer forest settlements in the Philippines. The forest ecosystem was converted by logging, further resource extraction by settlers, and cultivation — factors usually associated with systems degradation. Natural succession, however, was rapid because of high rainfall and abundant forest seed stocks; and because of high rainfall, weeds, insect pests, and poor soil — annual cereal and cash cropping was not profitable or sustainable and farmers turned to root and mixed perennial cropping. This naturally developing, more sustainable agroforestry was initially financed by boom-and-bust incomes from small scale logging and charcoal making, and took place in spite of the settlers' formation of factions and an ‘us before them’ attitude towards resource use.

Key words

tropical forest natural succession pioneer settlement interactive systems change and adaptation resource exploitation farmer knowledge perennial cropping 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Fujisaka
    • 1
  • E. Wollenberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Social Sciences DivisionInternational Rice Research InstituteManilaPhilippines
  2. 2.Department of Forestry and Resource ManagementUniversity of California BerkeleyUSA

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