Advertisement

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 160–180 | Cite as

‘Classical’ and ‘non-classical’ reproductive steroids in fish

  • David E. Kime
Papers

Summary

The nature of the steroids secreted by gonads of fish differs significantly from those of the mammals. The ‘classical teleost steroids’, oestradiol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17,20βP, have been measured in a wide variety of teleosts but do not always reflect biological activities. There is increasing evidence that teleost gonads may produce a number of ‘non-classical steroids’ which may play an important role in their reproductive biology. Such products include metabolites reduced at C5 to 5α or 5β, at C3 to 3α or 3β, or hydroxylated at 6-, 7-, or 21. Conjugation, as either glucuronides or sulphates, may contribute either to localization of action within the gonad or to production of pheromones during the immediate pre-spawning period. Although it is often possible only to measure the steroids for which assays are readily available, it is important to recognize that there may be production of steroids that are not detected by such assays, but which nevertheless play a major role in reproductive activity. In evolutionary terms, the teleost hydroxylases probably originated in the very early fishes and show parallels with their analogues in amphibians and mammals. Gene sequencing may reveal a possible common ancestor for all vertebrate 6, 7 and 11-hydroxylases.

Keywords

Sulphate Steroid Biological Activity Testosterone Gene Sequencing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asahina, K., Suzuki, K., Aida, K., Hibiya, T. and Tamaoki, B.-I. (1985) Relationship between the structures and steroidogenic functions of the testes of the urohaze-goby (Glossogobius olivaceus). Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 57, 281–92.Google Scholar
  2. Asahina, K., Barry, T.P., Aida, K., Fusetani, N. and Hanyu, I. (1990) Biosynthesis of 17α, 20α-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one from 17α-hydroxyprogesterone by spermatozoa of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. J. exp. Zool. 254, 244–9.Google Scholar
  3. Asahina, K., Zhu, Y., Aida, K. and Higashi, T. (1991) Synthesis of 17,21-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione, 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, and 17α, 20β, 21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one in the ovaries of tobinumeri-dragonet, Repomucenus beniteguri, Callionymidae, teleostei. In Scott, A.P., Sumpter, J.P., Kime, D.E. and Rolfe, M.S., eds. Proc. 4th Int. Symp. Reprod. Physiol. Fish. Sheffield: FishSymp91, pp. 80–82.Google Scholar
  4. Baynes, S.M. and Scott, A.P. (1985) Seasonal variations in parameters of milt production and in plasma concentration of sex steroids of male rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 57, 150–60.Google Scholar
  5. Bell, A.M., Clarke, I.M., Denny, W.A., Jones, E.R.H., Meakins, G.D., Muller, W.E. and Richards, E.E. (1973) Microbiological hydroxylations of steroids. Part IX. Hydroxylation of diketones and keto-alcohols derived from 5α-androstane with the fungi Rhizopus arrhizus and Rhizopus circinnans. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin I. 2131–6.Google Scholar
  6. Bolaffi, J.L., Lance, V., Callard, I.P., Walsh, J.M. and Idler, D.R. (1979) Identification of 11-ketotestosterone, 11β-hydroxytestosterone, and testosterone in plasma of Necturus maculosus (Rafinesque). Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 38, 127–31.Google Scholar
  7. Callard, G.V., Petro, Z. and Ryan, K.J. (1981) Biochemical evidence for aromatization of androgen to estrogen in the pituitary. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 44, 359–64.Google Scholar
  8. Canario, A.V.M. (1991) Sex steroids in marine flatfish. In Scott, A.P., Sumpter, J.P., Kime, D.E. and Rolfe, M.S., eds. Proc. 4th Int. Symp. Reprod. Physiol. Fish. Sheffield: FishSymp91, pp. 71–3.Google Scholar
  9. Canario, A.V.M. and Scott, A.P. (1989) Synthesis of 20α-hydroxylated steroids by ovaries of the dab (Limanda limanda). Gen comp. Endocrinol. 76, 147–58.Google Scholar
  10. Canario, A.V.M. and Scott, A.P. (1990a) Effects of steroids and human chorionic gonadotrophin on in vitro oocyte final maturation in two marine flatfish: the dab, Limanda limanda, and the plaice, Pleuronectes platessa. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 77, 161–76.Google Scholar
  11. Canario, A.V.M. and Scott, A.P. (1990b) Identification of, and development of radioimmunoassays for 17α,21-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione and 3α,17α,21-trihydroxy-5β-pregnane-20-one in the ovaries of mature plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 78, 273–85.Google Scholar
  12. Canario, A.V.M. and Scott, A.P. (1991) Levels of 17,20α-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 3β, 17α, 20α-trihydroxy-5β-pregnane, and other sex steroids, in blood plasma of male dab, Limanda limanda (marine flatfish) injected with human chorionic gonadotrophin. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 83, 258–64.Google Scholar
  13. Chan, S.T.H. and Phillips, J.G. (1969) The biosynthesis of steroids by the gonads of the ricefield eel Monopterus albus at various phases during natural sex reversal. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 12, 619–36.Google Scholar
  14. Chang, C.-F. and Chen, M.-R. (1990) The difference in the degree of steroid binding activity in fishes. Bull. Inst. Zool. Acad. Sinica, 29, 41–7.Google Scholar
  15. Colombo, L. and Colombo Belvedere, P. (1977) Gonadal steroidogenesis in teleost fishes. Invest. Pesq. 41, 147–64.Google Scholar
  16. Colombo, L., Bern, H.A., Pieprzyk, J. and Johnson, D.W. (1973) Biosynthesis of 11-deoxycortico-steroids by teleost ovaries and discussion of their possible role in oocyte maturation and ovulation. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 21, 168–78.Google Scholar
  17. Colombo, L., Colombo Belvedere, P. and Pilati, A. (1977) Biosynthesis of free and conjugated 5β-reduced androgens by the testis of the black goby, Gobius jozo L. Boll. Zool. 44, 131–4.Google Scholar
  18. Colombo, L., Colombo Belvedere, P. and Arcarese, G. (1978) Emergence of ovarian 11-deoxycorticosteroid biosynthesis at ovulation time in the sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L. Annls Biol. anim. Biochim. Biphys. 18, 937–41.Google Scholar
  19. Colombo, L., Marconato, A., Colombo Belvedere, P. and Frisco, C. (1980) Endocrinology of teleost reproduction: a testicular steroid pheromone in the black goby Gobius jozo L. Boll. Zool. 47, 355–64.Google Scholar
  20. Cuisset, B., Pelissero, C., Nunez Rodriguez, J. and Le Menn, F. (1991) Use of plasma 11-ketotestosterone for sex determination in Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baeri B. In Scott, A.P., Sumpter, J.P., Kime, D.E. and Rolfe, M.S., eds. Proc. 4th Int. Symp. Reprod. Physiol. Fish. Sheffield FishSymp91, p. 272.Google Scholar
  21. Eckstein, B. and Eylath, U. (1970) The occurrence and biosynthesis in vitro of 11-ketotestosterone in ovarian tissue of the mullet, Mugil capito, derived from two biotopes. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 14, 396–403.Google Scholar
  22. Eechaute, W., Lacroix, E., and Leusen, I. (1974) The conversion of testosterone to 7α-hydroxytestosterone by incubated rat testes. Steroids 24, 753–65.Google Scholar
  23. Epler, P. (1981) Effect of steroid and gonadotropic hormones on the maturation of carp ovaries. Part III. Effect of steroid hormones on the carp oocyte maturation in vitro. Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. 28, 103–10.Google Scholar
  24. Fostier, A., Jalabert, B., Billard, R., Breton, B. and Zohar, Y. (1983) The gonadal steroids. In Hoar, W.S., Randall, D.J. and Donaldson, E.M., eds. Fish Physiology, Vol. IX, Part A. New York and London: Academic Press, pp. 277–372.Google Scholar
  25. Goetz, F.W. and Bergman, H.L. (1978) The effects of steroids on final maturation and ovulation of oocytes from brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Biol. Reprod. 18, 293–8.Google Scholar
  26. Goswami, S.V., Sundararaj, B.I. and Donaldson, E.M. (1974) In vitro maturation response of oocytes of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) to salmon gonadotropin in ovary-head kidney co-culture. Can. J. Zool. 52, 745–8.Google Scholar
  27. Haider, S. and Inbaraj, R.M. (1989) Relative in vitro effectiveness of estradiol-17-β, androgens, corticosteroids, progesterone and other pregnene derivatives on germinal vesicle breakdown in oocytes of Indian major carps, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 6, 289–96.Google Scholar
  28. Idler, D.R. (ed.) (1972) Steroids in Nonmammalian Vertebrates. New York and London: Academic Press. 504 pp.Google Scholar
  29. Idler, D.R. and MacNab, H.C. (1967) The biosynthesis of 11-ketotestosterone and 11β-hydroxytestosterone by Atlantic salmon tissues in vitro. Can. J. Biochem. 45, 581–9.Google Scholar
  30. Idler, D.R., Fagerlund, U.H.M. and Ronald, A.P. (1960) Isolation of pregn-4-ene-17α, 20β-diol-3-one from the plasma of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Biochem. biophys. Res. Comm. 2, 133–7.Google Scholar
  31. Idler, D.R., Reinboth, R., Walsh, J.M. and Truscott, B. (1976) A comparison of 11-hydroxytestosterone and 11-ketotestosterone in blood of ambisexual and gonochoristic teleosts. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 30, 517–21.Google Scholar
  32. Inano, H. and Tamaoki, B.I. (1971) Regulation of testosterone biosynthesis in rat testes by 7α-hydroxylated C19 steroids. Biochim. biophys. Acta 239, 482–93.Google Scholar
  33. Inbaraj, R.M. and Haider, S. (1988) In vitro effectiveness of estradiol-17β, androgens, corticosteroids, progesterone, and other pregnene derivatives on germinal vesicle breakdown in oocytes of the exotic common carp Cyprinus carpio L. Ind. J. exp. Biol. 26, 583–5.Google Scholar
  34. Jalabert, B. (1976) In vitro oocyte maturation and ovulation in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), northern pike (Esox lucius) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 33, 974–88.Google Scholar
  35. Kagawa, H., Young, G., Adachi, S. and Nagahama, Y. (1982) Estradiol-17β production in Amago salmon (Oncorhynchus rhodurus) ovarian follicles: role of the thecal and granulosa cells. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 47, 440–8.Google Scholar
  36. Kime, D.E. (1979) The effect of temperature on the testicular steroidogenic enzymes of the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 39, 290–96.Google Scholar
  37. Kime, D.E. (1980) Androgen biosynthesis by testes of the goldfish Carassius auratus in vitro: the effect of temperature on the formation of steroid glucuronides. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 41, 164–72.Google Scholar
  38. Kime, D.E. (1987) The steroids. In Chester Jones, I., Ingleton, P.M. and Phillips, J.G., eds. Fundamentals of Comparative Vertebrate Endocrinology. New York and London: Plenum Press, pp. 3–56.Google Scholar
  39. Kime, D.E. (1990) In vitro metabolism of progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one by ovaries of the common carp Cyprinus carpio: production rates of polar metabolites. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 79, 406–14.Google Scholar
  40. Kime, D.E. (1992) Progestogen metabolism by ovaries of the roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) and the rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.). Fish. Physiol. Biochem. 9, 497–504.Google Scholar
  41. Kime, D.E. and Callard, G.V. (1982) Formation of 15α-hydroxylated androgens by the testis and other tissues of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, in vitro. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 46, 267–70.Google Scholar
  42. Kime, D.E. and Groves, D.J. (1986) Steroidogenesis by gonads of a viviparous teleost, the sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna), in vitro and in vivo. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 63, 125–33.Google Scholar
  43. Kime, D.E. and Hews, E.A. (1980) Steroid biosynthesis by the ovary of the hagfish Myxine glutinosa. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 42, 71–5.Google Scholar
  44. Kime, D.E. and Hews, E.A. (1982) The effect of temperature on steroid biosynthesis by testes of the dogfish Scyliorhinus caniculus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 71B, 675–9.Google Scholar
  45. Kime, D.E. and Hyder, M. (1983) The effect of temperature and gonadotropin on testicular steroidogenesis in Sarotherodon (Tilapia) mossambicus in vitro. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 50. 105–15.Google Scholar
  46. Kime, D.E. and Manning, N.J. (1982) Seasonal patterns of free and conjugated androgens in the brown trout Salmo trutta. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 48, 222–31.Google Scholar
  47. Kime, D.E. and Rafter, J.J. (1981) Biosynthesis of 15-hydroxylated steroids by gonads of the river lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis, in vitro, Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 44, 69–76.Google Scholar
  48. Kime, D.E. and Scott, A.P. (1993) In vitro synthesis of 20α-reduced and of 11- and 21-oxygenated steroids and their sulfates by testes of the goldfish (Carassius auratus): testicular synthesis of corticosteroids. Fish Physiol. Biochem. (in press).Google Scholar
  49. Kime, D.E., Hews, E.A. and Rafter, J. (1980a) Steroid biosynthesis by testes of the hagfish, Myxine glutinosa. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 41, 8–13.Google Scholar
  50. Kime, D.E., Vinson, G.P., Major, P.W. and Kilpatrick, R. (1980b) Adrenal-gonad relationships. In Chester Jones, I. and Henderson, I.W., eds. General, Comparative and Clinical Endocrinology of the Adrenal Cortex, Vol. 3. London: Academic Press, pp. 183–264.Google Scholar
  51. Kime, D.E., Venkatesh, B. and Tan, C.H. (1991) 5α-Pregnane-3β, 7α, 17,20α- and -20β-tetrols as metabolites of progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogestrone in carp (Cyprinus carpio) ovarian incubations. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 84, 401–4.Google Scholar
  52. Kime, D.E., Scott, A.P. and Canario, A.V.M. (1992) In vitro biosynthesis of steroids, including 11-deoxycortisol and 5α-pregnane-3β, 7α, 17,20β-tetrol, by ovaries of the goldfish Carassius auratus during the stage of oocyte final maturation. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 87, 375–84.Google Scholar
  53. Kime, D.E., Bhattacharya, S., Koldras, M. and Bieniarz, K. (1993) Steroidogenesis by ovaries and testes of the European catfish, the wels (Silurus glanis), in vitro. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 10, 389–98.Google Scholar
  54. Klyne, W. (1957) The Chemistry of Steroids. London: Methuen. 241 pp.Google Scholar
  55. Koldras, M., Bieniarz, K. and Kime, D.E. (1990) Sperm production and steroidogenesis in testes of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., at different stages of maturation. J. Fish Biol., 37, 635–45.Google Scholar
  56. Kristoffersson, R., Pesonen, S. and Teräväinen, T. (1976) Patterns of steroid metabolism in the ovarian tissue of a viviparous teleost fish, Zoarces viviparus (L.). Annls zool. fennici 13, 189–94.Google Scholar
  57. Lambert, J.G.D. and Pot, M.G.E. (1975) Steroidogenesis in ovarian tissue of a viviparous teleost, the guppy Poecilia reticulata. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 50B, 585–9.Google Scholar
  58. Lambert, J.G.D., Van den Hurk, R., Schoonen, W.G.E.J., Resink, J.W. and Van Oordt, P.G.W.J. (1986) Gonadal steroidogenesis and the possible role of steroid glucuronides as sex pheromones in two species of teleost. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 2, 101–7.Google Scholar
  59. Lambert, J.G.D., Ouwens, M., and Granneman, J.C.M. (1991) Steroidogenesis in the ovary of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla at the silver stage. In Scott, A.P., Sumpter, J.P., Kime, D.E. and Rolfe, M.S., eds. Proc. 4th Int. Symp. Reprod. Physiol. Fish. Sheffield: FishSymp91, pp. 66–70.Google Scholar
  60. Leitz, T. (1987) Social control of testicular steroidogenic capacities in the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens Regan. J. exp. Zool. 244, 473–8.Google Scholar
  61. Manning, N.J. and Kime, D.E. (1984) Temperature regulation of ovarian steroid production in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in vivo and in vitro. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 56, 376–88.Google Scholar
  62. Matsuyama, M., Adachi, S., Nagahama, Y., Maruyama, K. and Matsura, S. (1990a) Diurnal rhythm of serum hormone levels in the Japanese whiting, Sillago japonica, a daily spawning teleost. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 8, 329–38.Google Scholar
  63. Matsuyama, M., Hanaki, Y. and Matsuura, S. (1990b) Effects of steroids on germinal vesicle breakdown in vitro of intact follicles in the Japanese whiting, Sillago japonica, a marine teleost. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 96A, 257–61.Google Scholar
  64. Moore, A. and Scott, A.P. (1992) 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one 20-sulphate is a potent odorant in precocious male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr which have been pre-exposed to the urine of ovulated females. Proc. R. Soc. 249B, 205–9.Google Scholar
  65. Morfin, R.F., Leav, I., Orr, J.C., Picart, D. and Ofner, P. (1980) C19-steroid metabolism by canine prostate, epididymis and perianal glands. Application of the twin-ion technique of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to establish 7α-hydroxylation. Eur. J. Biochem. 109, 119–27.Google Scholar
  66. Nagahama, Y., Hirose, K., Young, G., Adachi, S., Suzuki, K. and Tamaoki, B.-I. (1983) Relative in vitro effectiveness of 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one and other pregnene derivatives on germinal vesicle breakdown on oocytes of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), amago salmon (Oncorhynchus rhodurus), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 51, 15–20.Google Scholar
  67. Nelson, J.S. (1984) Fishes of the World, 2nd edn. New York: Wiley. 523 pp.Google Scholar
  68. Ng, T.B. and Idler, D.R. (1983) Yolk formation and differentiation in teleost fishes. In Hoar, W.S., Randall, D.J. and Donaldson, E.M., eds. Fish Physiology, Vol. IX, Part A. New York and London: Academic Press, pp. 373–404.Google Scholar
  69. Pankhurst, N.W. and Conroy, A.M. (1988) Endocrine changes during gonadal maturation and spawning in the orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus Collett), a teleost from the midslope waters off New Zealand. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 70, 262–73.Google Scholar
  70. Patino, R. and Thomas, P. (1990) Characteristics of membrane receptor activity for 17α, 20 20β,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one in ovaries of spotted sea trout (Cynoscion nebulosus). Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 78, 204–17.Google Scholar
  71. Petrino, T.R., Greeley, M.S., jun., Selman, K., Lin, Y.-W.P. and Wallace, R.A. (1989) Steroidogenesis in Fundulus heteroclitus. II. Production of 17α-hydroxy-20β-dihydroprogesterone, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol by various components of the ovarian follicle. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 76, 230–40.Google Scholar
  72. Reinboth, R. and Becker, B. (1984) In vitro studies on steroid metabolism by gonadal tissues from ambisexual teleosts I: Conversion of [14C]testosterone by males and females of the protogynous wrasse Coris julis L. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 55, 245–50.Google Scholar
  73. Reinboth, R., Becker, B. and Latz, M. (1986) In vitro studies on steroid metabolism by gonadal tissues from ambisexual teleosts. II. Conversion of [14C]androstenedione by the heterologous gonadal tissues of the protandric sea bream Pagellus acarne (Risso). Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 62, 335–40.Google Scholar
  74. Sandor, T. and Idler, D.R. (1972) Steroid Methodology. In Idler, D.R., ed. Steroids in Nonmammalian Vertebrates. New York and London: Academic Press, pp. 6–36.Google Scholar
  75. Schoonen, W.G.E.J., Granneman, J.C.M., Lambert, J.G.D. and van Oordt, P.G.W.J. (1987) Steroidogenesis in the testes and seminal vesicles of spawning and non-spawning African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Aquaculture 63, 77–88.Google Scholar
  76. Schoonen, W.G.E.J., Lambert, J.G.D. and van Oordt, P.G.W.J. (1988a) Quantitative analysis of steroids and steroid glucuronides in the seminal vesicle fluid of feral spawning and feral and cultivated nonspawning African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 70, 91–100.Google Scholar
  77. Schoonen, W.G.E.J., Penders, M.T., Van Dam, G.H. and Lambert, J.G.D. (1988b) 5β-Pregnane-3α,6α,17α,20β-tetrol and 5β-pregnane-3α,6α,17α-triol-20-one: steroids of ovarian origin in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, during oocyte maturation. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 69, 181–7.Google Scholar
  78. Schoonen, W.G.E.J., Lambert, J.G.D., Penders, M.T., Van Roosmalen, M.E. Van den Hurk, R., Goos, H.J.Th. and van Oordt, P.G.W.J. (1989) Steroidogenesis during induced oocyte maturation and ovulation in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Fish. Physiol. Biochem. 6, 61–78.Google Scholar
  79. Scott, A.P. and Canario, A.V.M. (1992) 17α,20β-Dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one 20-sulphate: a major new metabolite of the teleost oocyte maturation inducing steroid. Gen. comp Endocrinol. 85, 91–100.Google Scholar
  80. Scott, A.P., Bye, V.J. and Baynes, S.M. (1980a) Seasonal variations in sex steroids of female rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). J. Fish Biol. 17, 587–92.Google Scholar
  81. Scott, A.P., Bye, V., Baynes, S.M. and Springate, J.R.C. (1980b) Seasonal variations in plasma concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone in male rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson. J. Fish Biol. 17, 495–506.Google Scholar
  82. Scott, A.P., Sumpter, J.P. and Hardiman, P.A. (1983) Hormone changes during ovulation in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 49, 128–34.Google Scholar
  83. Short, R.V. (1982) Sex determination and differentiation. In Austin, C.R. and Short, R.V.. eds. Reproduction in Mammals, 2: Embryonic and Fetal Development, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, pp. 70–113.Google Scholar
  84. Singh, P.B., Kime, D.E., Epler, P. and Chyb, J. (1993) Impact of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane exposure and plasma gonadotropin levels and in vitro stimulation of gonadal steroid production by carp hypophyseal homogenate in Carassius auratus Linn. J. Fish Biol. (in press).Google Scholar
  85. Smith, C.J. and Haley, S.R. (1988) Steroid profiles of the female tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, and correlation with oocyte growth and mouthbrooding behavior. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 69, 88–98.Google Scholar
  86. Sorenson, P.W., Goetz, F.W., Scott, A.P. and Stacey, N.E. (1991) Recent studies indicate that goldfish use mixtures of unmodified hormones and hormonal metabolites as sex pheromones. In Scott, A.P., Sumpter, J.P., Kime, D.E. and Rolfe, M.S., eds. Proc. 4th Int. Symp. Reprod. Physiol. Fish. Sheffield: FishSymp91, pp. 191–3.Google Scholar
  87. Sundararaj, B.I. and Goswami, S.V. (1966) Effects of mammalian hypophysial hormones, placental gonadotrophins, gonadal hormones, and adrenal corticosteroids on ovulation and spawning in hypophysectomised catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch.) J. exp. Zool. 161, 287–96.Google Scholar
  88. Sunde, A.. Tveter, K. and Eik-Nes, K.B. (1980) Hydroxylation of testosterone in the human testis. Identification of 4-androstene-7α,17β-diol-3-one (7α-hydroxytestosterone) as a metabolite of testosterone. Acta endocr. Copenh. 93, 243–9.Google Scholar
  89. Suzuki, K., Tamaoki, B.-I. and Hirose, K. (1981) In vitro metabolism of 4-pregnenes in ovaries of a freshwater teleost, the ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis): production of 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one and its 5β-reduced metabolites, and activation of 3β- and 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases by treatment with a fish gonadotropin. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 45, 473–81.Google Scholar
  90. Suzuki, K., Tan, E.S.P. and Tamaoki, B.-I. (1987) In vitro production of 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one by ovarian tissue of a tropical catfish, Clarias macrocephalus, Gunther. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 66, 454–6.Google Scholar
  91. Suzuki, K., Tan, E.S.P. and Tamaoki, B.-I. (1989) Change of steroidogenic pathways in the ovary of a tropical catfish, Clarias macrocephalus, Gunther, after hCG treatment. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 76, 223–9.Google Scholar
  92. Tesone, M. and Charreau, E.H. (1980) Steroid biosynthesis in the gonads of the teleost fish Jenynsia lineata. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 65B, 631–8.Google Scholar
  93. Theofan, G. and Goetz, F.W. (1983) The in vitro synthesis of final maturational steroids by ovaries of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 51, 84–95.Google Scholar
  94. Thomas, P. and Trant, J.M. (1989) Evidence that 17α,20β,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one is a maturation inducing steroid in spotted sea trout. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 7, 185–91.Google Scholar
  95. Trant, J.M., Thomas, P. and Shackleton, C.H.L. (1986) Identification of 17α,20β,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one as the major ovarian steroid produced by the teleost Micropogonias undulatus during final oocyte maturation. Steroids 47, 89–99.Google Scholar
  96. Trudeau, V.L., Sloley, B.D., Wong, A.O.L. and Peter, R. (1991) Mechanism of sex-steroid negative and positive feedback control of gonadotropin (GtH) secretion in teleosts. In Scott, A.P., Sumpter, J.P., Kime, D.E. and Rolfe, M.S., eds. Proc. 4th Int. Symp. Reprod. Physiol. Fish. Sheffield: FishSymp91, pp. 224–6.Google Scholar
  97. Truscott, B., So, Y.P., Nagler, J.J. and Idler, D.R. (1992) Steroids involved with final oocyte maturation in the winter flounder. J. Steroid Biochem. mol. Biol. 42, 351–6.Google Scholar
  98. Tyler, C.R., Sumpter, J.P. and Campbell, P.M. (1991) Uptake of vitellogenin into oocytes during early vitellogenic development in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J. Fish Biol. 38, 681–9.Google Scholar
  99. Ungar, F., Gunville, R., Sundararaj, B.I. and Goswami, S.V. (1977) Formation of 3α-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one in the ovaries of catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 31, 53–9.Google Scholar
  100. Upadhyaya, N. and Haider, S. (1986) Germinal vesicle breakdown in oocytes of catfish Mystus vittatus (Bloch): relative in vitro effectiveness of estradiol-17β, androgens, corticosteroids, progesterone and other pregnane derivatives. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 63, 70–76.Google Scholar
  101. Van Dam, G.H., Schoonen, W.G.E.J., Lambert, J.G.D. and van Oordt, P.G.W.J. (1989) Plasma profiles of fourteen ovarian steroids before, during and after ovulation in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 6, 79–89.Google Scholar
  102. Van den Hurk, R. and Resink, J.W. (1992) Male reproductive system as sex pheromone producer in teleost fish. J. exp. Zool. 261, 204–13.Google Scholar
  103. Van den Hurk, R., Schoonen, W.G.E.J., van Zoelen, G.A. and Lambert, J.G.D. (1987) The biosynthesis of steroid glucuronides in the testis of the zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio, and their pheromonal function as ovulation inducers. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 68, 179–88.Google Scholar
  104. Van der Kraak, G., Sorensen, P.W., Stacey, N.E. and Dulka, J.G. (1989) Periovulatory female gold-fish release three potential pheromones: 17α,20β-dihydroxyprogesterone, 17α,20β-dihydroxyprogesterone glucuronide, and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 73, 452–7.Google Scholar
  105. Van Weerd, J.H., Sukkel, M. and Richter, C.J.J. (1988) An analysis of sex stimuli enhancing ovarian growth in pubertal African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Aquaculture 75, 181–91.Google Scholar
  106. Venkatesh, B., Tan, C.H., Kime, D.E., Loy, G.L. and Lam, T.J. (1992) Steroid metabolism by ovarian follicles and extrafollicular tissue of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) during oocyte growth and gestation. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 86, 378–94.Google Scholar
  107. Wallace, R.A. and Selman, K. (1981) Cellular and dynamic aspects of oocyte growth in teleosts. Am. Zool. 21, 325–43.Google Scholar
  108. Wright, R.S. and Hunt, S.M.V. (1982) A radioimmunoassay for 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one: its use in measuring changes in serum levels at ovulation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Gen, comp. Endocrinol. 47, 475–82.Google Scholar
  109. Yeung, W.S.B. and Chan, S.T.H. (1985) The in vitro metabolism of radioactive progesterone and testosterone by the gonads of the protandrous Rhabdosargus sarba at various sexual phases. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 59, 171–83.Google Scholar
  110. Young, G., Crim, L.W., Kagawa, H., Kambegawa, A. and Nagahama, Y. (1983) Plasma 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one levels during sexual maturation of amago salmon (Oncorhynchus rhodurus): correlation with plasma gonoadotropin and in vitro production by ovarian follicles. Gen. comp. Endocrinol. 51, 96–105.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • David E. Kime
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Animal and Plant SciencesThe University of SheffieldSheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations