, Volume 79, Issue 3, pp 165–176 | Cite as

Tree uprooting: review of impacts on forest ecology

  • Randall J. Schaetzl
  • Scott F. Burns
  • Donald L. Johnson
  • Thomas W. Small


This paper reviews the ecological effects of tree uprooting. In many forests, disturbance by uprooting is the primary means of maintaining species richness and diversity. Treefall may be due to exogenous factors or it may be endogenously created, although the former predominate. The canopy gap formed by downed trees is often vital to community vegetation dynamics and successional pathways, by providing high light niches (gaps) for pioneer species, by encouraging release of suppressed, shade-tolerant saplings, and through recruitment of new individuals. Nutrient cycling may be affected by uprooting as subsoil materials are brought to the surface, via additions of woody debris to the forest floor, through exposure of bare mineral soil, and by changes in throughfall chemistry. The influence of the resultant pit/mound microtopography on understorey herb distribution is largely due to microclimatic and microtopographic variation. Tree seedling distribution, however, is related to microtopography primarily through differences in soil morphology, nutrition, and moisture content of mound and pit sites.


Forest disturbance Gap-phase replacement Mosaic structure Pit/mound microtopography Seedling establishment Species richness 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, J.M. & Swift, M.J. 1983. Decomposition in tropical forests. In: Sutton, S.L., Whitmore, T.C. & Chadwick, A.C. (eds), The tropical forest. pp. 287–309. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, R.C., Loucks, O.L. & Swain, A.M. 1969. Herbaceous response to canopy cover, light intensity, and throughfall precipitation in coniferous forests. Ecology 50: 255–263.Google Scholar
  3. Barden, L.S. 1979. Tree replacement in small canopy gaps of a Tsuga canadensis forest in the southern Appalachians, Tennessee. Oecologia 44: 141–142.Google Scholar
  4. Barden, L.S. 1981. Forest development in canopy gaps of a diverse hardwood forest of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Oikos 37: 205–209.Google Scholar
  5. Beatty, S.W. 1984. Influence of microtopography and canopy species on spatial patterns of forest understory plants. Ecology 65: 1406–1419.Google Scholar
  6. Beatty, S.W. & Stone, E.L. 1986. The variety of soil microsites created by tree falls. Can. J. For. Res. 16: 539–548.Google Scholar
  7. Bongers, F., Popma, J., Meave del Castillo, J. & Carabias, J. 1988. Structure and floristic composition of the lowland rain forest of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, Vegetatio 74: 55–80.Google Scholar
  8. Bormann, F.H. & Likens, G.E. 1979a. Catastrophic disturbance and the steady state in northern hardwood forests. Amer. Sci. 67: 660–669.Google Scholar
  9. Bormann, F.H. & Likens, G.E. 1979b. Pattern and process in a forested ecosystem. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Bormann, F.H., Siccama, T.G., Likens, G.E. & Whittaker, R.H. 1970. The Hubbard Brook ecosystem study: composition and dynamics of the tree stratum. Ecol. Mon. 40: 373–388.Google Scholar
  11. Bratton, S.P. 1976. Resource division in an understory herb community: responses to temporal and microtopographic gradients. Am. Nat. 110: 679–693.Google Scholar
  12. Bray, J.R. 1956. Gap phase replacement in a maplebasswood forest. Ecology 37: 598–600.Google Scholar
  13. Brewer, R. & Merritt, P.G. 1978. Wind throw and tree replacement in a climax beech-maple forest. Oikis 30: 149–152.Google Scholar
  14. Brokaw, N.V.L. 1985a. Gap-phase regeneration in a tropical forest. Ecology 66: 682–687.Google Scholar
  15. Brokaw, N.V.L. 1985b. Treefalls, regrowth, and community structure in tropical forests. In: Pickett, S.T.A. & White, P.S. (eds), The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics, pp. 53–69. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Burrows, C.J. 1977. Forest vegetation. In: Burrows, C.J. (ed.), Cass: history and science in the Cass District, Canterbury, New Zealand, pp. 233–257. Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Canterbury.Google Scholar
  17. Canham, C.D. & Marks, P.L. 1985. The response of woody plants to disturbance: Patterns of establishment and growth. In: Pickett, S.T.A. & White, P.S. (eds), The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics, pp. 197–216. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Chazdon, R.L. & Fletcher, N. 1984. Photosynthetic light environments in a lowland tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. J. Ecol. 72: 553–564Google Scholar
  19. Clements, F.E. 1936. Nature and structure of the climax. J. Ecol. 24: 252–284.Google Scholar
  20. Cline, A.C. & Spurr, S.H. 1942. The virgin upland forest of central New England. Harvard For. Bull. 21.Google Scholar
  21. Collins, B.S. & Pickett, S.T.A. 1982. Vegetation composition and relation to environment in an Allegheny hardwoods forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 108: 117–123.Google Scholar
  22. Collins, B.S., Dunne, K.P. & Pickett, S.T.A. 1985. Responses of forest herbs to canopy gaps. In: Pickett, S.T.A. & White, P.S. (eds), The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics, pp. 217–234. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Cook, B.D. 1971. Tree-age distributions in a northern hardwood forest. M.Sc. Thesis, McGill Univ., Montreal.Google Scholar
  24. Cook, R.E. & Lyons, E.E. 1983. The biology of Viola fimbriatula in a natural disturbance. Ecology 64: 654–660.Google Scholar
  25. Cooper, W.S. 1913. The climax forest of Isle Royale, Lake Superior, and its development. I. Bot. Gaz. 55: 1–44.Google Scholar
  26. Cremeans, D.W. & Kalisz, P.J. 1988. Distribution and characteristics of windthrow microtopography on the Cumberland Plateau of Kentucky. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 52: 816–821.Google Scholar
  27. Curtis, J.T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Univ. of Wisc. Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  28. Daubenmire, R. 1968. Plant communities: A textbook of plant synecology. Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Denny, C.S. & Goodlett, J.C. 1956. Microrelief resulting from fallen trees. In: Surficial geology and geomorphology of Potter County, Pennsylvania USGS Prof. Paper 288: 59–66.Google Scholar
  30. Denslow, J.S. 1980. Patterns of plant species diversity during succession under different disturbance regimes. Oecologia 46: 18–21.Google Scholar
  31. Dix, R.L. & Swan, J.M.A. 1971. The roles of disturbance and succession in upland forest at Candle Lake, Saskatchewan. Can. J. Bot. 49: 657–676.Google Scholar
  32. Dixon, A.C. & Place, I.C.M. 1952. Influence of microtopo-graphy on the survival of spruce and fir reproduction. Silvic. Leaflet 68, Forestry Branch, Can. Dept. of Resources and Development.Google Scholar
  33. Douglas, J.E. 1967. Effects of species and arrangement of forests on evapotranspiration. In: Sopper, W.E. & Lull, H.W. (eds), Proceedings of the International Symposium on Forest Hydrology, pp. 451–461. Pergamon, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Drury, W.H. & Nisbet, I.C.T. 1973. Succession. J. Arnold Arbor. 54: 331–368.Google Scholar
  35. Dunn, C.P., Guntenspergen, G.R. & Dorney, J.R. 1983. Catastrophic wind disturbance in an old-growth hemlockhardwood forest, Wisconsin. Can. J. Bot. 61: 211–217.Google Scholar
  36. Faliński, J.B. 1978. Uprooted trees, their distribution and influence on the primeval forest biotope. Vegetatio 38: 175–183.Google Scholar
  37. Forcier, L.K. 1975. Reproductive strategies and the cooccurrence of climax tree species. Science 189: 808–809.Google Scholar
  38. Foster, J.R. & Reiners, W.A. 1983. Vegetation patterns in a virgin subalpine forest at Crawford Notch, White Mountains, New Hampshire. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110: 141–153.Google Scholar
  39. Foster, J.R. & Reiners, W.A. 1986. Size distribution and expansion of canopy gaps in a northern Appalachian spruce-fir forest. Vegetatio 68: 109–114.Google Scholar
  40. Foster, R.B. 1977. Tachigalia versicolor is a suicidal neotropical tree. Nature 268: 624–626.Google Scholar
  41. Fox, J.F. 1977. Alternation and coexistence of tree species. Am. Nat. 111: 69–89.Google Scholar
  42. Franklyn, J.F. & Dyrness, C.T. 1969. Vegetation of Oregon and Washington USDA For. Serv. Res. Paper PNW-80.Google Scholar
  43. Frissell Jr, S.S. 1973. The importance of fire as a natural ecologic factor in Itasca State Park, Minnesota. Quat. Res. 3: 397–407.Google Scholar
  44. Goder, H.A. 1961. Hemlock reproduction and survival on its border in Wisconsin. Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 50: 175–182.Google Scholar
  45. Goodlett, J.C. 1954. Vegetation adjacent to the border of the Wisconsin drift in Potter County, Pennsylvania. Harvard For. Bull. 25: 1–93.Google Scholar
  46. Grasveld, P. & Imming, J. 1987. Natuurlijke ontwikkelingen op Drentse stormvlaktes. Rept. Res. Inst. Nature Mgmt., Leersum.Google Scholar
  47. Grubb, P.J. 1977. The maintenance of species-richness in plant communities: The importance of the regeneration niche. Biol. Rev. 52: 107–145.Google Scholar
  48. Handel, S.N. 1976. Dispersal ecology of Carex pedunculata (Cyperaceae), a new North American Myrmecochore. Am. J. Bot. 63: 1071–1079.Google Scholar
  49. Handel, S.N. 1978. The competitive relationship of three woodland sedges and its bearing on the evolution of antdispersal of Carex pedunculata. Evolution 32: 151–163.Google Scholar
  50. Harcombe, P.A. & Marks, P.L. 1978. Tree diameter distributions and replacement processes in southeast Texas forests. For. Sci. 24: 153–166.Google Scholar
  51. Harcombe, P.A. & Marks, P.L. 1983. Five years of tree death in a Fagus-Magnolia forest, southeast Texas (USA). Oecologia 57: 49–54.Google Scholar
  52. Harper, J.L., Williams, J.T., & Sagar, G.R. 1965. The behavior of seeds in soil. I. The heterogeneity of soil surfaces and its role in determining the establishment of plants from seed. J. Ecol. 53: 273–286.Google Scholar
  53. Hart, G., Leonard, R.E. & Pierce, R.S. 1962. Leaf fall, humus depth, and soil frost in a northern hardwood forest. USDA For. Serv. Res. Note NE-131.Google Scholar
  54. Hartshorn, G.S. 1980. Neotropical forest dynamics. Biotropica 12 (Suppl.): 23–30.Google Scholar
  55. Henry, J.D. & Swan, J.M.A. 1974. Reconstructing forest history from live and dead plant material-an approach to the study of forest succession in southwest New Hampshire. Ecology 55: 772–783.Google Scholar
  56. Hibbs, D.E. 1979. The age structure of a striped maple population. Can. J. For. Res. 9: 504–508.Google Scholar
  57. Hibbs, D.E. 1982. Gap dynamics in a hemlock-hardwood forest. Can. J. For. Res. 12: 522–527.Google Scholar
  58. Horn, H.S. 1975. Forest succession. Sci. Am. 232(5): 90–98.Google Scholar
  59. Hutchinson, G.E. 1951. Copepodology for the ornithologist. Ecology 32: 571–577.Google Scholar
  60. Hutnik, R.J. 1952. Reproduction on windfalls in a northern hardwood stand. J. For. 50: 693–694.Google Scholar
  61. Hytteborn, H. & Packham, J.R. 1985. Left to nature: Forest structure and regeneration in Fiby Urskog, Central Sweden. Arboricult. J. 9: 1–11.Google Scholar
  62. Hytteborn, H., Packham, J.R. & Verwijst, T. 1987 Tree population dynamics, stand structure and species composition in the montane virgin forest of northern Sweden. Vegetatio 72: 3–19.Google Scholar
  63. Iwaki, H. & Totsuka, T. 1959. Ecological and physiological studies on the vegetation of Mt. Shimagare. II. On the crescent-shaped ‘dead trees strips’ in the Yatsugatake and the Chichibu Mountains. Bot. Mag. 72: 255–260.Google Scholar
  64. Jane, G.T. 1986. Wind damage as an ecological process in mountain beech forests of Canterbury, New Zealand. N.Z.J. Ecol. 9: 25–39.Google Scholar
  65. Johnson, D.L., Watson-Stegner, D., Johnson, D.N. & Schaetzl, R.J. 1987. Proisotropic and proanisotropic processes of pedoturbation. Soil Sci. 143: 278–292.Google Scholar
  66. Jones, E.W. 1945. The structure and reproduction of the virgin forest in the North Temperate Zone. New Phytol. 44: 130–148.Google Scholar
  67. Koop, H. 1987. Vegetative reproduction of trees in some European natural forests. Vegetatio 72: 103–110.Google Scholar
  68. Leemans, R. & Prentice, I.C. 1987. Description and simulation of tree-layer composition and size distribution in a primaeval Picea-Pinus forest. Vegetatio 69: 147–156.Google Scholar
  69. Lorimer, C.G. 1977. The presettlement forest and natural disturbance cycle of northeastern Maine. Ecology 58: 139–148.Google Scholar
  70. Lorimer, C.G. 1980. Age structure and disturbance history of a southern Appalachian virgin forest. Ecology 61: 1169–1184.Google Scholar
  71. Loucks, O.L. 1970. Evolution of diversity, efficiency, and community stability. Am. Zool. 10: 17–25.Google Scholar
  72. Lutz, H.J. 1940. Disturbance of forest soil resulting from the uprooting of trees. Yale School of For. Bull. 45.Google Scholar
  73. Lyford, W.H. & MacLean, D.W. 1966. Mound and pit microrelief in relation to soil disturbance and tree distribution in New Brunswick, Canada. Harvard For. Paper 15.Google Scholar
  74. March, W.J. & Skeen, J.N. 1976. Global radiation beneath the canopy and in a clearing of a suburban hardwood forest. Agric. Metr. 16: 321–327.Google Scholar
  75. Marks, P.L. 1974. The role of pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica L.) in the maintenance of stability in northern hardwood ecosystems. Ecol. Mon. 44: 73–88.Google Scholar
  76. Maser, C. & Trappe, J.M. 1984. The seen and unseen world of the fallen tree. USDA For. Service, Gen. Tech. Rept. PNW-164.Google Scholar
  77. McFee, W.W. & Stone, E.L. 1966. The persistence of decaying wood in the humus layers of northern forests. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 30: 513–516.Google Scholar
  78. McIntosh, R.P. 1961. Windfall in forest ecology. Ecology 42: 834.Google Scholar
  79. Minckler, L.S. & Woerheide, J.D. 1965. Reproduction of hardwoods 10 years after cutting as affected by site and opening size. J. For. 63: 103–107.Google Scholar
  80. Minckler, L.S., Woerheide, J.D. & Schlesinger, R.S. 1973. Light, soil moisture, and tree reproduction in hardwood forest openings. USDA Forest Serv. Res. Paper NC-89.Google Scholar
  81. Mladenoff, D.J. 1987. Dynamics of nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in hemlock and hardwood treefall gaps. Ecology 68: 1171–1180.Google Scholar
  82. Monk, C.D. 1961. The vegetation of the William L. Hutcheson Memorial Forest, New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 88: 156–166.Google Scholar
  83. Naka, K. 1982. Community dynamics of evergreen broadleaf forests in southwestern Japan. I. Wind damaged trees and canopy gaps in an evergreen oak forest. Bot. Mag. 95: 385–399.Google Scholar
  84. Nakashizuka, T. 1987. Regeneration dynamics of beach forests in Japan. Vegetatio 65: 169–175.Google Scholar
  85. Nichols, G.E. 1935. The hemlock-white pine-northern hardwood region of eastern North America. Ecology 16: 403–422.Google Scholar
  86. Oliver, C.D. & Stephens, E.P. 1977. Reconstruction of a mixed-species forest in central New England. Ecology 58: 562–572.Google Scholar
  87. Olszewski, J.L. 1968. Role of uprooted trees in the movements of rodents in forests. Oikos 19: 99–104.Google Scholar
  88. Oosting, H.J. & Humphreys, M.E. 1940. Buried viable seeds in a successional series of old field and forest soils. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 67: 253–273.Google Scholar
  89. Pickett, S.T.A. 1980. Non-equilibrium existence of plants. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 107: 238–248.Google Scholar
  90. Pickett, S.T.A. & White, P.S. (eds) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  91. Pritchett, W.L. 1979. Properties and management of forest soils. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  92. Putz, F.E. 1983. Treefall pits and mounds, buried seeds, and the importance of soil disturbance to pioneer trees on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Ecology 64: 1069–1074.Google Scholar
  93. Putz, F.E., Coley, P.D., Lu, K., Montalvo, A., & Aiello, A. 1983. Uprooting and snapping of trees: structural determinants and decological consequences. Can. J. For. Res. 13: 1011–1020.Google Scholar
  94. Raup, H.M. 1941. An old forest in Stonington, Connecticut. Rhodora 43: 67–71.Google Scholar
  95. Raup, H.M. 1957. Vegetational adjustment to the instability of site. Proc. Papers Union Conserv. Nature Nat. Resour. 36–48.Google Scholar
  96. Raup, H.M. 1964. Some problems in ecological theory and their relation to conservation. J. Ecol. 52: 19–28.Google Scholar
  97. Reiners, W.A. & Lang, G.E. 1979. Vegetational patterns and processes in the balsam fir zone, White Mountains, New Hampshire. Ecology 60: 403–417.Google Scholar
  98. Richards, P.W. 1955. The secondary succession in the tropical rain forest. Sci. Progr. 43: 45–57.Google Scholar
  99. Richards, P. & Williamson, G.B. 1975. Treefalls and patterns of understory species in a wet lowland tropical forest. Ecology 56: 1226–1229.Google Scholar
  100. Rozmakhov, I.G., Serova, P.P. & Yurkina, S.I.1963. Effect of forests on microcomplexity of soils. Sov. Soil Sci. 1131–1136.Google Scholar
  101. Runkle, J.R. 1981. Gap regeneration in some old-growth forests of the eastern United States. Ecology 62: 1041–1051.Google Scholar
  102. Runkle, J.R. 1982. Patterns of disturbance in some oldgrowth mesic forests of North America. Ecology 63: 1533–1556.Google Scholar
  103. Runkle, J.R. 1984. Development of woody vegetation in treefall gaps in a beech-sugar maple forest Holarctic Ecol. 7: 157–164.Google Scholar
  104. Runkle, J.R. 1985a. Comparison of methods for determining fraction of land area in treefall gaps. Forest Sci. 31: 15–19.Google Scholar
  105. Runkle, J.R. 1985b. Disturbance regimes in temperate forests. In: Pickett, S.T.A. & White, P.S. (eds), The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics, pp. 17–33. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  106. Schaetzl, R.J., Johnson, D.L., Burns, S.F. & Small, T.W. 1989. Tree uprooting: review of terminology, process, and environmental implications. Can. J. For. Res. 18.Google Scholar
  107. Sernander, R. 1936. Granskär och Fiby Urskog. En studie øver strømluckornas och marbuskarnas betydelse i den svenska granskogens regeneration. Acta Phytogeog. Suec. 8: 1–232.Google Scholar
  108. Skeen, J.N. 1976. Regeneration and survival of woody species in a naturally-created forest opening. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 103: 259–265.Google Scholar
  109. Sprugel, D.G. 1976. Dynamic structure of wave-generated Abies balsamea forests in the north-eastern United States. J. Ecol. 64: 889–911.Google Scholar
  110. Spurr, S.H. 1956. Natural restocking of forests following the 1938 hurricane in central New England. Ecology 37: 443–451.Google Scholar
  111. Spurr, S.H. & Barnes, B.V. 1980 Forest ecology. 3rd ed. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  112. Stearns, F.W. 1949. Ninety years of change in a northern hardwood forest in Wisconsin. Ecology 30 350–58.Google Scholar
  113. Stoeckeler, J.H. & Arbogast Jr, C. 1955. Forest management lessons from a 1949 windstorm in northern Wisconsin and upper Michigan. USDA For. Serv. Exp. St. Pap. LS-34.Google Scholar
  114. Stone, E.L. 1975. Windthrow influences on spatial heterogeneity in a forest soil. Eidgen. Anstalt Forstl. Versuch Swes. Mitt. 51: 77–87.Google Scholar
  115. Strong, D.R. 1977. Epiphyte loads, tree falls, and perennial forest disruption: A mechanism for maintaining higher tree species richness in the tropics without animals. J. Biogeog. 4: 215–218.Google Scholar
  116. Struik, G.J. & Curtis, J.T. 1962. Herb distribution in an Acer saccharu forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 68: 285–296.Google Scholar
  117. Swaine, M.D. & Whitmore, T.C. 1988. On the definition of ecological species groups in tropical rain forests. Vegetatio 75: 81–86.Google Scholar
  118. Talbot, M. 1934. Distribution of ant species in the Chicago region with reference to ecological factors and physiological tolerances. Ecology 15: 416–439.Google Scholar
  119. Thompson, J.N. 1980. Treefalls and colonization patterns of temperate forest herbs. Am. Midl. Nat. 104: 176–184.Google Scholar
  120. Trimble Jr, G.R. & Tryon, E.H. 1966. Crown encroachment into openings cut in Appalachian hardwood stands. J. For. 64: 104–108.Google Scholar
  121. Troedsson, T. & Lyford, W.H. 1973. Biological disturbance and small-scale spatial variation in a forested soil near near Garpenburg, Sweden. Stud. For. Suecica 109.Google Scholar
  122. Vazquez-Yanes, C. & Orozco-Segovia, A. 1982. Seed germination of a tropical rain forest pioneer tree Heliocarpus donnell-smithii in response to diurnal fluctuations of temperature. Physiologia Plantarum 56: 295–298.Google Scholar
  123. Veblen, T.T. 1985. Stand dynamics in Chilean Nothofagus forests. In: Pickett, S.T.A. & White, P.S. (eds), The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics, pp. 35–51, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  124. Veblen, T.T. & Ashton, D.H. 1978. Catastrophic influences on the vegetation of the Valdivian Andes, Chile. Vegetatio 36: 149–167.Google Scholar
  125. Vitousek, P.M. & Denslow, J.S. 1986. Nitrogen and phosphorous availability in treefall gaps of a lowland tropical rainforest. J. Ecol. 74: 1167–1178.Google Scholar
  126. Wardle, J. 1970. The ecology of Nothofagus solandri: IV. Growth and general discussion of parts I to IV. New Z. J. Bot. 4: 609–646.Google Scholar
  127. Watt, A.S. 1925. On the ecology of British beechwoods with special reference to their regeneration. Part II. The development and structure of beech communities on the Sussex Downs. J. Ecol. 35: 1–22.Google Scholar
  128. Watt, A.S. 1947. Pattern and process in the plant community. J. Ecol. 35: 1–22.Google Scholar
  129. Webb, L.J. 1958. Cyclones as an ecological factor in tropical lowland rainforest, North Queensland. Aust. J. Bot. 6: 220–228.Google Scholar
  130. Webb, L.J., Tracey, J.G. & Williams, W.T. 1972. Regeneration and pattern in the subtropical rainforest. J. Ecol. 60: 675–695.Google Scholar
  131. Webster, J.D. 1963. Tornado-disturbed beech-maple forest. Audubon Field Notes 17: 496–497.Google Scholar
  132. White, P.S. 1979. Pattern, process and natural disturbance in vegetation. Bot. Rev. 45: 229–299.Google Scholar
  133. White, P.S., MacKenzie, M.D. & Busing, R.T. 1985. Natural disturbance and gap phase dynamics in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests. Can. J. For. Res. 15: 233–240.Google Scholar
  134. White, P.S. & Pickett, S.T.A. 1985. Natural disturbance and patch dynamics: An introduction. In: Pickett, S.T.A. & White, P.S. (eds), The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics, pp. 3–13, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  135. Whitney, G.G. 1986. Relation of Michigan's presettlement pine forests to substrate and disturbance history. Ecology 67: 1548–1559.Google Scholar
  136. Whittaker, R.H. 1975. Communities and ecosystems. 2nd ed., MacMillan, N.Y..Google Scholar
  137. Williamson, G.B. 1975. Pattern and seral composition in an old-growth beech-maple forest. Ecology 56: 727–731.Google Scholar
  138. Woods, F.W. & Shanks, R.E. 1959. Natural replacement of chestnut by other species in the Great Smokey Mountains National Park. Ecology 40: 349–361.Google Scholar
  139. Wright, H.E. 1974. Landscape development, forest fires, and wilderness management. Science 186: 487–495.Google Scholar
  140. Wyatt-Smith, J. 1954. Storm forest in Kelantan Malay. For. 17: 5–11.Google Scholar
  141. Zeide, B. 1981. Method of mound dating. For. Sci. 27: 39–41.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Randall J. Schaetzl
    • 1
  • Scott F. Burns
    • 2
  • Donald L. Johnson
    • 3
  • Thomas W. Small
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of GeographyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Department of Petroleum Engineering and GeosciencesLouisiana Tech UniversityRustonUSA
  3. 3.Department of GeographyUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  4. 4.Department of GeographyFrostburg State UniversityFrostburgUSA

Personalised recommendations