, Volume 123, Issue 1, pp 13–37 | Cite as

Strategies of reproduction, dispersion, and competition in river plants: A review

  • M. H. Barrat-Segretain


The present paper reviews the literature on reproduction, survial, dispersion and competition in aquatic plants of mostly European rivers. The specificity of the strategies of colonization in aquatic plants in comparison with terrestrial plants is noted. The importance of the knowledge of these life history traits in the control of the harmful effects caused by aquatic plants and for ecosystem management is also considered. The difficulty of applying current ecological theories concerning adaptative strategies to aquatic plants is discussed, focusing on the great interest of studying the species traits of aquatic macrophytes for testing such theories and interpreting recolonization patterns of disturbed areas. Knowledge of strategies of reproduction, dispersion and competition among aquatic plants remains very fragmentary, particularly from a quantitative view-point, and further studies are required both for theoretical and practical applications.

Key words

Colonization Freshwater macrophytes Hydraulic disturbance Life history traits Management 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aarssen, L. W. 1992. Causes and consequences of variation in competitive ability in plant communities. J. Veget. Sci. 3: 165–174.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, M. S., Titus, J. & McCracken, M. 1974. Depth distribution of photosynthetic activity in aMyriophyllum spicatum community in Lake Wingra. Limnol. Oceanogr. 19: 377–389.Google Scholar
  3. Agami, M. & Waisel, Y. 1985. Inter-relationships betweenNajas marina L. and three other species of aquatic macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 126: 169–173.Google Scholar
  4. Agami, M. & Waisel, Y. 1986. Regeneration ofNajas marina L. and ofPotamogeton lucens L. after selective clipping of an established mixed stand, pp 3–7. In: Proceedings of the European Weed Research Society. 7th International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds. Loughborough, England.Google Scholar
  5. Agami, M. & Waisel, Y. 1988. The role of fish in distribution and germination of seeds of submerged macrophytesNajas marina L. andRuppia maritima L. Oecologia 76: 83–88.Google Scholar
  6. Aiken, S. G. & Walz, K. F. 1979. Turions ofMyriophyllum exalbescens. Aquat. Bot. 6: 357–363.Google Scholar
  7. Aiken, S. G., Newroth, P. R. & Wile, I. 1979. The biology of canadian weeds. 34.Myriophyllum spicatum L. Can. Plant Sci. 59: 201–215.Google Scholar
  8. Arber, A. 1920. Water plants, a study of aquatic angiosperms. Wheldom & Wesley, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  9. Austin, M. P. 1990. community theory and competition in vegetation, pp 215–238. In: Grace, J. B. & Tilman, D. (eds.) Perspectives on plant competition. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  10. Austin, M. P., Groves, R. H., Fresco, L. M. F. & Kaye, P. E. 1985. Relative growth of six thistle species along a nutrient gradient with multispecies composition. J. Ecol. 73: 667–684.Google Scholar
  11. Barbe, J. 1984. Les végétaux aquatiques. Données biologiques et écologiques, clés de détermination des macrophytes de France. Bulletin français de pisciculture, No spécial, 42 p.Google Scholar
  12. Barrett, P. R. F. 1974. A spraying rig for the experimental application of herbicides to the floating leaves of water plants. Weed Res. 14: 313–315.Google Scholar
  13. Bartley, M. R. & Spence, D. H. N. 1987. Dormancy and propagation in helophytes and hydrophytes. Arch. Hydrobiol. Ergebn. Limnol. 27: 139–155.Google Scholar
  14. Basiouny, F. M., Haller, W. & Garrard, L. A. 1978. Survival of hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) plants and propagules after removal from the aquatic habitat. Weed Sci. 26: 502–504.Google Scholar
  15. Begon, M., Harper, J. L. & Townsend, C. R. 1986. Ecology: Individuals, populations and communities. Blackwells, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  16. Belsky, A. J. 1986. Revegetation of artificial disturbances in grasslands of the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. I. Colonization of grazed and ungrazed plots. J. Ecol. 74: 419–437.Google Scholar
  17. Best, E. P. H. 1988. The phytosociological approach to the description and classification of aquatic macrophyte vegetation, pp 155–182. In: Symoens, J. J. (ed.) Vegetation of inland waters. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  18. Blackburn, R. D. 1975. Aquatic macrophytes and their problems, pp 5–7. In: Brezonik, P. L. & Fox, J. L. (eds.) Proceedings of a symposium on water quality management through biological control. University of Florida, Flordia, USA.Google Scholar
  19. Bornette, G., Henry, C., Barrat, M. H. & Amoros, C. 1994. Theoretical habitat templets, species traits, and species richness: aquatic macrophytes in the Upper Rhône River and its floodplain. Freshw. Biol. 31: 487–505.Google Scholar
  20. Botkin, D. B. 1975. Strategies for the reintroduction of species to damaged ecosystems, pp 241–260. In: Cairn, J., Dickson, K. L. & Herricks, E. E. (eds.) Recovery and restoration of damaged ecosystems. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Boutin, C. & Keddy, P. A. 1993. A functional classification of wetland plants. J. Veget. Sci. 4: 591–600.Google Scholar
  22. Bowes, G., Holaday, A. S. & Haller, W. T. 1979. Seasonal variation in the biomass, tuber density and photosynthetic metabolism ofHydrilla in three Florida lakes. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 17: 61–65.Google Scholar
  23. Bowmer, K. H., Mitchell, D. S. & Short, D. L. 1984. Biology ofElodea canadensis Mich. and its management in Australian irrigation systems. Aquat. Bot. 18: 231–238.Google Scholar
  24. Breen, C. M., Rogers, K. H. & Ashton, P. J. 1988. Vegetation processes in swamps and flooded plains, pp 223–247. In: Symoens, J. J. (ed.) Vegetation of inland waters. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The netherlands.Google Scholar
  25. Brock, T. C. M., Mielo, H. & Oostermeijer, G. 1989. On the life cycle and germination ofHottonia palustris L; in a wetland forest. Aquat. Bot. 35: 153–166.Google Scholar
  26. Brooker, M. P. & Edwards, R. W. 1975. Review paper: aquatic herbicides and the control of water weeds. Water Res. 9: 1–15.Google Scholar
  27. Brux, H., Todeskino, D. & Wiegleb, G. 1987. Growth and reproduction ofPotamogeton alpinus Balbis growing in disturbed habitats. Archiv Hydrobiol. Ergebn. Limnol. 27: 115–127.Google Scholar
  28. Bullock, S. H. & Primack, R. B. 1977. Comparative experimental study of seed dispersal on animals. Ecology 58: 681–686.Google Scholar
  29. Butcher, R. W. 1933. Studies on the ecology of rivers. I. On the distribution of macrophytic vegetation in the rivers of Britain. J. Ecol. 21: 58–91.Google Scholar
  30. Buttery, B. R. & Lambert, J. M. 1965. Competition betweenGlyceria maxima andPhragmites communis in the region of Surlingham Broad. I. The competition mechanism. J. Ecol. 53: 163–182.Google Scholar
  31. Campbell, B. D. & Grime, J. P. 1992. An experimental test of plant strategy theory. Ecology 73: 15–29.Google Scholar
  32. Carbiener, R., Tremolières, M., Mercier, J. L. & Ortscheit, A. 1990. Aquatic macrophyte communities as bioindicators of eutrophication in calcareous oligosaprobe stream waters (Upper Rhine plain, Alsace). Vegetatio 86: 71–88.Google Scholar
  33. Carpenter, S. R. & Adams, M. S. 1977. The macrophyte tissue nutrient pool of a hardwater eutrophic lake: implications for macrophyte harvesting. Aquat. Bot. 3: 239–255.Google Scholar
  34. Carpenter, S. R. & Lodge, D. M. 1986. Effects of submerged macrophytes on ecosystem processes. Aquat. Bot. 26: 341–370.Google Scholar
  35. Chambers, P. A. 1987. Light and nutrients in the control of aquatic plant community structure. II.In situ observations. J. Ecol. 75: 621–628.Google Scholar
  36. Chambers, P. A. & Prepas, E. E. 1990. Competition and coexistence in submerged aquatic plant communities: the effects of species interactions versus abiotic factors. Freshw. Biol. 23: 541–550.Google Scholar
  37. Chambers, P. A., Spence, D. H. N. & Weeks, D. C. 1985. Photocontrol of turion formation byPotamogeton crispus L. in the laboratory and natural Water. New Phytol. 99: 183–194.Google Scholar
  38. Coble, T. A. & Vance, B. D. 1987. Seed germination inMyriophyllum spicatum L. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 25: 8–10.Google Scholar
  39. Collins, S. L. 1987. Interactions of disturbances in tallgrass prairie: a field experiment. Ecology 68: 1243–1250.Google Scholar
  40. Collins, S. L. 1989. Experimental analysis of patch dynamics and community heterogeneity in tallgrass prairie. Vegetatio 85: 57–66.Google Scholar
  41. Cook, C. D. K. 1966. A monographic study ofRanunculus subgenusBatrachium. Bot. Mitt. (München) 6: 47–237.Google Scholar
  42. Cook, C. D. K. 1982. Pollination mechanisms in the Hydrocharitaceae, pp 1–15. In: Symoens, J. J., Hooper, S. S. & Compére, P. (eds.) Studies on aquatic vascular plants. Royal Botanical Society of Belgium, Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  43. Cook, C. D. K. 1987a. Dispersion in aquatic and amphibious vascular plants, pp 179–190. In: Crawford, R. M. M. (ed.) Plant life in aquatic and amphibious habitats. Special Publication British Ecological Society, No. 5. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  44. Cook, C. D. K. 1987b. Vegetation growth and genetic mobility in some aquatic weeds, pp 217–225. In: K. M., Urbanska (ed.) Differentiation patterns in higher plants. Academic Press, London, UK.Google Scholar
  45. Cook, C. D. K. 1988. Wind polination in aquatic angiosperms. Ann. Missouri Bot. Garden 75: 768–777.Google Scholar
  46. Cook, C. D. K. 1990a. Seed dispersal ofNymphoïdes peltata (S. G. Gmelin) O. Kuntze (Menyanthaceae). Aquat. Bot. 37: 325–340.Google Scholar
  47. Cook, C. D. K. 1990b. Aquatic plant book. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  48. Cook, C. D. K. & Lüönd, R. 1982a. A revision of the genusHydrilla (Hydrocharitaceae). Aquat. Bot. 13: 485–504.Google Scholar
  49. Cook, C. D. K. & Lüönd, R. 1982b. A revision of the genusHydrocharis (Hydrocharitaceae). Aquat. Bot. 14: 177–204.Google Scholar
  50. Cook, C. D. K. & Nichols, M. S. 1987. A monographic study of the genusSparganium (Sparganiaceae). Part 2. SubgenusSparganium. Bot. Helvet. 97: 1–44.Google Scholar
  51. Cook, C. D. K. & Urmi-König, K. 1985. A revision of the genusElodea (Hydrocharitaceae). Aquat. Bot. 21: 111–156.Google Scholar
  52. Cook, C. D. K., Symoens, J. J. & Urmi-König, K. 1984. A revision of the genusOttelia (Hydrocharitaceae). I. Generic considerations. Aquat. Bot. 18: 263–274.Google Scholar
  53. Cooke, G. D. 1980. Lake level drawdown as a macrophyte control technique. Water Resour. Bull. 16: 317–322.Google Scholar
  54. Couderc, J. M. 1967. Contribution à l'étude des rapports entre la végétation et les cours d'eau ligériens. Etud. Ligérien. 1: 54–65.Google Scholar
  55. Cox, P. A. 1988. Hydrophilous pollination. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 19: 261–280.Google Scholar
  56. Crowder, A. A., Bristow, J. M., King, M. R. & Vanderkloet, S. 1977. Distribution, seasonality, and biomass of aquatic macrophytes in lake Opinicon (Eastern Ontario). Nat. Can. 104: 441–456.Google Scholar
  57. Dahlgren, G. 1993.Ranunculus penicillatus in Nordern. Nord. J. Bot. 13: 593–605.Google Scholar
  58. Dawson, F. H. 1978. The seasonal effects of aquatic plant growth on the flow of water in a stream, pp 71–76. In: Proceedings of the European Weed Research Society. 5th International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  59. Dawson, F. H. 1980. Flowering ofRanunculus penicillatus (Dum.) Bab. var.calcareus (R. W. Butcher) C. D. K. Cook in the river Piddle (Dorset, England). Aquat. Bot. 9: 145–157.Google Scholar
  60. Dawson, F. H. 1988, Water flow and the vegetation of running water, pp 283–309. In: Symoens, J. J. (ed.) Vegetation of inland waters. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  61. Dawson, F. H., Castellano, E. & Ladle, M. 1978. Concept of species succession in relation to river vegetation and management. Verh. Int. Verein. Limnol. 20: 1429–1434.Google Scholar
  62. Day, R. T., Keddy, P. A., McNeil, J. & Carleton, T. 1988. Fertility and disturbance gradients: a summary model for riverine marsh vegetation. Ecology 69: 1044–1054.Google Scholar
  63. del, Moral, R. 1983. Competition as a control mechanism in subalpine meadows. Am. J. Bot. 70: 232–245.Google Scholar
  64. den, Hartog, C. & Segal, S. 1964. A new classification of the water-plant communities. Acta Bot. Neerl. 13: 367–393.Google Scholar
  65. de, Vlaming, V. & Proctor, V. W. 1968. Dispersal of aquatic organisms: viability of seeds recovered from the droppings of captive killdeer and mallard ducks. Am. J. Bot. 55: 20–26.Google Scholar
  66. Dudley, J. L. 1987. Turion formation in strains ofLemna minor (6591) andLemna turionifera (6573,A). Aquat. Bot. 27: 207–215.Google Scholar
  67. Dutartre, A. 1986. Aquatic plants introduced in freshwater lakes and ponds in Aquitaine (France): dispersion and ecology ofLagarosiphon major andLudwigia peploïdes, pp 93–98. In: Proceedings of the European Weed Research Society. 7th International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds. Loughborough, England.Google Scholar
  68. Elakovich, S. D. 1989. Allelopathic aquatic plants for aquatic weed management. Biol. Plant. (Praha) 31: 479–486.Google Scholar
  69. Elakovich, S. D. & Wooten, J. W. 1991. Allelopathic potential ofNuphar lutea (L.) Sibth. & Sm. (Nymphaeaceae). J. Chem. Ecol. 17: 707–714.Google Scholar
  70. Fenner, M. 1978. A comparison of the abilities of colonizers and closed-turf species to establish from seed in artificial swards. J. Ecol. 66: 953–963.Google Scholar
  71. Foster, D. R. 1988. Species and stand response to catastrophic wind in central New England, USA. J. Ecol. 76: 135–151.Google Scholar
  72. Fowler, N. 1981. Competition and coexistence in a north carolina grassland. II. The effects of the experimental removal of species. J. Ecol. 69: 843–854.Google Scholar
  73. Frank, P. A. 1975. Competitive interactions among aquatic plants, pp 24–27. In: Brezonik, P. L. & Fox, J. L. (eds.) Proceedings of a symposium on water quality management through biological control. University of Florida, Florida, USA.Google Scholar
  74. Frankland, B., Bartley, M. R. & Spence, D. H. N. 1987. Germination under water, pp 167–177. In: Crawford, R. M. M. (ed.) Plant life in aquatic and amphibious habitats. Special Publication British Ecological Society, No. 5. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  75. Gadgil, M. & Solbrig, O. T. 1972. The concept of r- and K-selection: evidence from wild-flowers and some theoretical considerations. Am. Nat. 106: 14–31.Google Scholar
  76. Gaudet, C. L. & Keddy, P. A. 1988. A comparative approach to predicting competitive ability from plant traits. Nature 334: 242–243.Google Scholar
  77. Gaudet, C. L. & Keddy, P. A. 1995. Competitive performance and species distribution in shoreline plant communities: a comparative approach. Ecology 76: 280–291.Google Scholar
  78. Gloaguen, J. C. & Gautier, N. 1981. Pattern development of the vegetation during colonization of a burnt heathland in Brittany (France). Vegetatio 46: 167–176.Google Scholar
  79. Goldberg, D. E. & Fleetwood, L. 1987. Competitive effect and response in four annual plants. J. Ecol. 75: 1131–1143.Google Scholar
  80. Gopal, B. & Goel, U. 1993. Competition and allelopathy in aquatic plant communities. Bot. Rev. 59: 155–210.Google Scholar
  81. Grace, J. B. 1985. Juvenile vs. adult competitive abilities in plants: size-dependence in cattails (Typha). Ecology 66: 1630–1638.Google Scholar
  82. Grace, J. B. & Wetzel, R. G. 1981. Habitat partitioning and competitive displacement in cattails (Typha): Experimental field studies. Am. Nat. 118: 463–474.Google Scholar
  83. Gray, L. J. & Fisher, S. G. 1981. Postflood recolonization pathways of macroinvertebrates in a lowland Sonoran Desert stream. Am. Midl. Nat. 106: 249–257.Google Scholar
  84. Grillas, P. & Duncan, P. 1986. On the distribution and abundance of submersed macrophytes in temporary marshes in the Camargue (S. France), pp 133–141. In: Proceedings of the European Weed Research Society. 7th International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds. Loughborough, England.Google Scholar
  85. Grime, J. P. 1973. Competitive exclusion in herbaceous vegetation. Nature 242: 344–347.Google Scholar
  86. Grime, J. P. 1974. Vegetation classification by reference to strategies. Nature 250: 26–31.Google Scholar
  87. Grime, J. P. 1977. Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. Am. Nat. 111: 1169–1194.Google Scholar
  88. Grime, J. P. 1979. Plant strategies and vegetation processes. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  89. Guo, Y. H. & Cook, C. D. K. 1989. Pollination efficiency ofPotamogeton pectinatus L. Aquat. Bot. 34: 381–384.Google Scholar
  90. Guo, Y. H. & Cook, C. D. K. 1990. The floral biology ofGroenlandia densa (L.) Fourreau (Potamogetonaceae). Aquat. Bot. 38: 283–288.Google Scholar
  91. Guppy, H. B. 1906. Observations of a naturalist in the Pacific between 1891 and 1899. Vol. 2. Plant dispersal. Macmillan Co., London, UK.Google Scholar
  92. Haag, R. W. 1983. Emergence of seedlings of aquatic macrophytes from lake sediments. Can. J. Bot. 61: 148–156.Google Scholar
  93. Haller, W. T., Miller, J. L. & Garrard, L. A. 1976. Seasonal production and germination of hydrilla vegetative propagules. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 14: 26–29.Google Scholar
  94. Ham, S. F., Wright, J. F. & Berrie, A. D. 1981. Growth and recession of aquatic macrophytes of an unshaded section of the River Lambourn, England, from 1971 to 1976. Freshw. Biol. 11: 381–390.Google Scholar
  95. Ham, S. F., Cooling, D. A., Hiley, P. D., McLeish, P. R., Scorgie, H. R. A. & Berrie, A. D. 1982. Growth and recession of aquatic macrophytes on an shaded section of the River Lambourn, England, from 1971 to 1976. Freshw. Biol. 12: 1–15.Google Scholar
  96. Harper, J. L. 1977. Population biology of plants. Academic Press, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  97. Harris, S. W. & Marshall, W. H. 1963. Ecology of water level manipulations on a northern marsh. Ecology 44: 331–343.Google Scholar
  98. Haslam, S. M. 1987. River plants of Western Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  99. Heslop-Harrison, Y. 1955.Nuphar. J. Ecol. 43: 342–355.Google Scholar
  100. Hill, N. M. & Keddy, P. A. 1992. Prediction of rarities from habitat variables: coastal plain plants on Nova Scotian lakeshores. Ecology 73: 1852–1859.Google Scholar
  101. Hillman, W. S. 1961. The Lemnaceae, or duckweeds, a review of the descriptive and experimental literature. Bot. Rev. 27: 221–287.Google Scholar
  102. Hills, J. M., Murphy, K. J., Pulford, I. D. & Flowers, T. H. 1994. A method for classifying European riverine wetland ecosystems using functional vegetation groups. Func. Ecol. 8: 242–252.Google Scholar
  103. Holmes, N. T. H. 1980.Ranunculus penicillatus (Dumort.) Bab. in the British Isles. Watsonia 13: 57–59.Google Scholar
  104. Holmes, N. T. H. & Whitton, B. A. 1977. The macrophyte vegetation of the River Tees in 1975: observed and predicted changes. Freshw. Biol. 7: 43–60.Google Scholar
  105. Jacobs, D. L. 1947. An ecological life-history ofSpirodela polyrhiza (greater duckweed) with emphasis on the turion phase. Ecol. Monogr. 17: 439–468.Google Scholar
  106. Jacobs, D. L. & Brock, T. C. M. 1982. A revision of the genusRuppia. Aquat. Bot. 14: 325–337.Google Scholar
  107. Johansson, M. E. & Nillsson, C. 1993. Hydrochory, population dynamics and distribution of the clonal aquatic plantRanunculus Lingua. J. Ecol. 81: 81–91.Google Scholar
  108. Johnstone, I. M., Coffey, B. T. & Howards-Williams, C. 1985. The role of recreational boat traffic in interlake dispersal of macrophytes: a New Zealand study. J. Environ. Manage. 20: 263–279.Google Scholar
  109. Kamat, N. D. 1967. Dispersal of charophytes by the pintail. Curr. Sci. 36: 134.Google Scholar
  110. Kaul, R. B. 1978. Morphology of germination and establishment of aquatic seedlings in Alismataceae and Hydrocharitaceae. Aquat. Bot. 5: 139–147.Google Scholar
  111. Kautsky, L. 1988. Life-strategies of soft bottom marcrophytes. Oikos 53: 126–135.Google Scholar
  112. Kautsky, L. 1991.In situ experiments on interrelationships between six brackish macrophyte species. Aquat. Bot. 39: 159–172.Google Scholar
  113. Keddy, P. A. 1976. Lakes as islands: the distributional ecology of two aquatic plants,Lemna minor L. andLemna trisulca L. Ecology 57: 353–359.Google Scholar
  114. Keddy, P. A. 1989a. Plant zonation on lakeshores in Nova Scotia: a test of the resource specialization hypothesis. J. Ecol. 72: 797–808.Google Scholar
  115. Keddy, P. A. 1989b. Competition. Chapman Hall, London, UK.Google Scholar
  116. Keddy, P. A. 1989c. Effects of competition from shrubs on herbaceous wetland plants: a 4-year field experiment. Can. J. Bot. 67: 708–716.Google Scholar
  117. Keddy, P. A. 1990a. Competitive hierarchies and centrifugal organization in plant communities, pp 265–290. In: Grace, J. B. & Tilman, D. (eds.) Perspectives on plant competition. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, USA.Google Scholar
  118. Keddy, P. A. 1990b. Water level fluctuations and wetland conservation, pp 79–91. In: Kusler, J. & Smardon, R. (eds.) Wetlands of the Great Lakes: protection and restoration policies, status of the science. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Niagara Falls, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  119. Keddy, P. A. 1992. Assembly and response rules: two goals for predictive community ecology. J. Veget. Sci. 3: 157–164.Google Scholar
  120. Keddy, P. A. & Constabel, P. 1986. Germination of ten shoreline plants in relation to seed size, soil particle size and water level: an experimental study. J. Ecol. 74: 133–141.Google Scholar
  121. Keddy, P. A. & McLellan, P. 1990. Centrifugal organization in forests. Oikos 59: 75–84.Google Scholar
  122. Keddy, P. A. & Reznicek, A. A. 1982. The role of seed banks in the persistence of Ontario's coastal plain flora. Am. J. Bot. 69: 13–22.Google Scholar
  123. Keddy, P. A. & Reznicek, A. A. 1986. Great lakes vegetation dynamics: the role of fluctuating water levels and buried seeds. J. Great Lakes Res. 12: 25–36.Google Scholar
  124. Keddy, P. A. & Shipley, B. 1989. Competitive hierarchies in herbaceous plant communities. Oikos 54: 234–241.Google Scholar
  125. Kimbel, J. C. 1982. Factors influencing potential intralake colonization byMyriophyllum spicatum L. Aquat. Bot. 14: 295–307.Google Scholar
  126. Klaine, S. J. & Ward, C. H. 1984. Environmental and chemical control of vegetative dormant bud production inHydrilla verticillata. Ann. Bot. 53: 503–514.Google Scholar
  127. Kozhova, O. M. & Izhboldina, L. A. 1992. Spread ofElodea canadensis in Lake Baikal. Hydrobiologia 239: 43–52.Google Scholar
  128. Krefting, L. W. & Roe, E. L. 1949. The role of some birds and mammals in seed germination. Ecol. Monogr. 19: 271–286.Google Scholar
  129. Kuhlshreshtha, M. & Gopal, B. 1983. Allelopathic influence ofHydrilla verticillata (L.F.) royle on the distribution ofCeratophyllum species. Aquat. Bot. 16: 207–209.Google Scholar
  130. Kunii, H. & Maeda, K. 1982. Seasonal and long-term changes in surface cover of aquatic plants in a shallow pond, Ojaga-ike, Chiba, Japan. Hydrobiologia 87: 45–55.Google Scholar
  131. Lamberti, G. A., Gregory, S. V., Ashkenas, L. R., Wildman, R. C. & Moore, K. M. S. 1991. Stream ecosystem recovery following a catastrophic debris flow. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 196–208.Google Scholar
  132. Langeland, K. A. & Sutton, D. L. 1980. Regrowth ofHydrilla from axillary buds. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 18: 27–29.Google Scholar
  133. Lavorel, S. & Lebreton, J. D. 1992. Evidence for lottery recruitment in Mediterranean old fields. J. Veget. Sci. 3: 91–100.Google Scholar
  134. Lovett-Doust, L. 1981. Populations dynamics and local specialization in a clonal perennial (Ranunculus). I. The dynamics of ramets in contrasting habitats. J. Ecol. 69: 743–755.Google Scholar
  135. Lowcock, L. A. & Murphy, R. W. 1990. Seed-dispersal via amphibian vectors: passive transport of Bur-marigold,Bidens cernua, achenes by migration salamanders, genusAmbystoma. Can. Field Nat. 104: 298–300.Google Scholar
  136. MacArthur, R. H. & Wilson, E. O. 1967. Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.Google Scholar
  137. McAuliffe, J. R. 1984. Competition for space, disturbance, and the structure of a benthic stream community. Ecology 65: 894–908.Google Scholar
  138. McCreary, N. J. 1991. Competition as a mechanism of submersed macrophyte community structure. Aquat. Bot. 41: 177–193.Google Scholar
  139. McCreary, N. J. & Carpenter, S. R. 1987. Density-dependent growth interactions betweenEleocharis acicularis (L.) R. & S. andJuncus pelocarpus formasubmersus Fassett. Aquat. Bot. 27: 229–241.Google Scholar
  140. McCreary, N. J., Carpenter, S. R. & Chaney, J. E. 1983. Coexistence and interference in two submersed freshwater perennial plants. Oecologia 59: 393–396.Google Scholar
  141. McNaughton, S. J. 1968. Autotoxic feedback in relation to germination and seedling growth inTypha latifolia. Ecology 49: 367–369.Google Scholar
  142. McNaughton, S. J. 1975. r- and K-selection inTypha. Am. Nat. 109: 251–261.Google Scholar
  143. Mitchell, D. S. & Rogers, K. H. 1985. Seasonality/aseasonality of aquatic macrophytes in Southern Hemisphere inland waters. Hydrobiologia 125: 137–150.Google Scholar
  144. Moen, R. A. & Cohen, Y. 1989. Growth and competition betweenPotamogeton pectinatus L. andMyriophyllum exalbescens Fern. in experimental ecosystems. Aquat. Bot. 33: 257–270.Google Scholar
  145. Moore, D. R. J., Keddy, P. A., Gaudet, C. L. & Wisheu, I. C. 1989. Conservation of wetlands: do infertile wetlands deserve a higher priority? Biol. Conserv. 47: 203–217.Google Scholar
  146. Murphy, K. J. & Barrett, P. R. F. 1990. Chemical control of aquatic weeds, pp 93–135. In: Pieterse, A. N. & Murphy, K. (eds.) Aquatic weeds. The ecology and management of nuisance aquatic vegetation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  147. National Research Council (ed.). 1992. Restoration of aquatic ecosystems: Science, technology, and public policy. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  148. Newell, S. J. & Tramer, E. J. 1978. Reproductive strategies in herbaceous plant communities during succession. Ecology 59: 228–234.Google Scholar
  149. Nichols, S. A. 1975. The use of overwinter drawdown for aquatic vegetation management. Water Res. Bull. 11: 1137–1148.Google Scholar
  150. Nichols, S. A. 1991. The interaction between biology and the management of aquatic macrophytes. Aquat. Bot. 41: 225–252.Google Scholar
  151. Nichols, S. A. & Shaw, B. H. 1986. Ecological life histories of the three aquatic nuisance plants,Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton crispus andElodea canadensis. Hydrobiologia 131: 3–21.Google Scholar
  152. Nilsson, C., Gardfjell, M. & Grelsson, G. 1991. Importance of hydrochory in structuring plant communities along rivers. Can. J. Bot. 69: 2631–2633.Google Scholar
  153. Parrish, J. A. D. & Bazzaz, F. A. 1982. Competitive interactions in plant communities of different successional ages. Ecology 63: 314–320.Google Scholar
  154. Patten, B. C.Jr. 1956. Notes on the biology ofMyriophyllum spicatum L. in a New Jersey lake. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 83: 5–18.Google Scholar
  155. Philbrick, C. T. 1988. Evolution of underwater outcrossing from aerial pollination systems: a hypothesis. Ann. Missouri Bot. Garden 75: 836–841.Google Scholar
  156. Phillips, G. L., Eminson, D. & Moss, B. 1978. A mechanism to account for macrophyte decline in progressively eutrophicated freshwaters. Aquat. Bot. 4: 103–126.Google Scholar
  157. Pianka, E. R. 1970. On r- and K-selection. Am. Nat. 104: 592–597.Google Scholar
  158. Pianka, E. R. 1981. Competition and niche theory, pp 167–196. In: May, R. M. (ed.) Theoretical ecology. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, USA.Google Scholar
  159. Pickett, S. T. A. & White, P. S. 1985. Patch dynamics: a synthesis, pp 371–384. In: Pickett, S. T. A. & White, P. S. (eds.) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press New-York, Orlando.Google Scholar
  160. Proctor, V. W. 1962. Viability ofChara oospores taken from migratory water birds. Ecology 45: 565–568.Google Scholar
  161. Proctor, V. W. 1968. Long-distance dispersal of seeds by retention in the digestive tract of birds. Science 160: 321–322.Google Scholar
  162. Proctor, M. & Yeo, P. 1973. The pollination of flowers. Collins, London, England.Google Scholar
  163. Rejmankova, E. 1975. Comparison ofLemna gibba andLemna minor from the production ecological viewpoint. Aquat. Bot. 1: 423–428.Google Scholar
  164. Resh, V. H., Brown, A. V., Covich, A. P., Gurtz, M. E., Li, H. W., Minshall, S. R., Reice, A. L., Sheldon, A. L., Wallace, J. B. & Wissman, R. C. 1988. The role of disturbance in stream ecology. J. North Am. Benthol. Soc. 7: 433–455.Google Scholar
  165. Rice, E. L. 1979. Allelopathy — an update. Bot. Rev. 45: 15–109.Google Scholar
  166. Ridley, H. N. 1923. The distribution of plants. Ann. Bot. 37: 1–29.Google Scholar
  167. Ridley, H. N. 1930. The dispersion of plants throughout the world. L. Reeve and Co., Ashford, Kent, England.Google Scholar
  168. Rogers, K. H. & Breen, C. M. 1980. Growth and reproduction ofPotamogeton crispus in a South African lake. J. Ecol. 68: 561–571.Google Scholar
  169. Røslett, B. 1988. An integrated approach to hydropower impact assessment. I. Environmental features of some Norwegian hydroelectric lakes. Hydrobiologia 164: 39–66.Google Scholar
  170. Roughgarden, J. 1971. Density-dependent natural selection. Ecology 52: 453–468.Google Scholar
  171. Sand-Jensen, K., Jeppesen, E., Nielsen, K., van der, Bijl, L., Hjermind, L., Nielsen, L. W. & Iversen, T. M. 1989. Growth of macrophytes and ecosystem consequences in a lowland danish stream. Freshw. Biol. 22: 15–32.Google Scholar
  172. Sastroutomo, S. S. 1981. Turion formation, dormancy and germination of curly pondweed,Potamogeton crispus L. Aquat. Bot. 10: 161–173.Google Scholar
  173. Sastroutomo, S. S., Ikusina, I., Numata, M. & Iizumi, S. 1979. The importance of turions in the propagation of Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.). Ecol. Rev. 19: 75–88.Google Scholar
  174. Schloesser, D. W., Edsall, T. A. & Manny, B. A. 1985. Growth of submersed macrophyte communities in the St. Clair-Detroit river system between Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Can. J. Bot. 63: 1061–1065.Google Scholar
  175. Schneider, R. L. & Sharitz, R. R. 1988. Hydrochory and regeneration in a bald cypress-water tupelo swamp forest. Ecology 69: 1055–1063.Google Scholar
  176. Schotsman, H. D. 1954. A taxonomic spectrum of the sectionEucallitriche in the Netherlands. Acta Bot. Neerl. 3: 313–384.Google Scholar
  177. Schotsman, H. D. 1967. Les Callitriches-espèces de France et taxa nouveaux d'Europe. Flore de France 1. Le Chevalier, Paris, France.Google Scholar
  178. Scribailo, R. W. & Posluszny, U. 1984. The reproductive biology ofHydrocharis morsusranae. I. Floral biology. Can. J. Bot. 62: 2779–2787.Google Scholar
  179. Sculthorpe, C. D. 1967. The biology of aquatic vascular plants. Edward Arnold, London, UK.Google Scholar
  180. Sharitz, R. R. & McCormick, J. F. 1973. Population dynamics of two competing annual plant species. Ecology 62: 314–320.Google Scholar
  181. Shipley, B. & Parent, M. 1991. Germination responses of 64 wetlands species in relation to seed size, minimum time to reproduction and seedling relative growth rate. Funct. Ecol. 5: 111–118.Google Scholar
  182. Shipley, B., Keddy, P. A., Moore, D. R. J. & Lemky, K. 1989. Regeneration and establishment strategies of emergent macrophytes. J. Ecol. 77: 1093–1110.Google Scholar
  183. Smits, A. J. M., van, Ruremonde, R. & van der, Velde, G. 1989. Seed dispersal of three nymphaeid macrophytes. Aquat. Bot. 35: 167–180.Google Scholar
  184. Smits, A. J. M., van, Avesaath, P. H. & van der, Velde, G. 1990. Germination requirements and seed banks of some nymphaeid macrophytes:Nymphea alba L.,Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. andNymphoides peltata (Gmel) O. Kuntze. Freshw. Biol. 24: 315–326.Google Scholar
  185. Spence, D. H. N. 1964. The macrophytic vegetation of freshwater lochs, swamps and associated fens, pp 306–425. In: Burnett, J. H. (ed.) The Vegetation of Scotland. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, London, UK.Google Scholar
  186. Spence, D. H. N. 1982. The zonation of plants in freshwater lakes. Adv. Ecol. Res. 12: 37–125.Google Scholar
  187. Spence, D. H. N., Milburn, T. R., Ndawula-Denyimba, M. & Roberts, E. 1971. Fruit biology and germination of two typicalPotamogeton species. New Phytol. 70: 197–212.Google Scholar
  188. Spencer, D. F. & Bowes, G. 1990. Ecophysiology of the world's troublesome aquatic weeds, pp 39–73. In: Pieterse, A. N. & Murphy, K. (eds.) Aquatic weeds. The ecology and management of nuisance aquatic vegetation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  189. Spencer, D. F. & Ksander, G. G. 1991. Comparative growth and propagule production byHydrilla verticillata grown from axillary turions or subterranean turions. Hydrobiologia 222: 153–158.Google Scholar
  190. Staniforth, R. J. & Cavers, P. B. 1976. An experimental study of water dispersal inPolygonum spp. Can. J. Bot. 54: 2587–2596.Google Scholar
  191. Stebbings, G. L. & Major, J. 1965. Endemism and speciation in the California flora. Ecol. Monogr. 35: 1–35.Google Scholar
  192. Steward, K. K., Van, T. K., Carter, V. & Pieterse, A. H. 1984.Hydrilla invades Washington, D.C. and the Potomac. Am. J. Bot. 71: 162–163.Google Scholar
  193. Svedäng, M. U. 1990. The growth dynamics ofJuncus bulbosus L. — a strategy to avoid competition? Aquat. Bot. 37: 123–138.Google Scholar
  194. Szczepanska, W. 1971. Allelopathy among the aquatic plants. Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. 18: 17–30.Google Scholar
  195. Szczepanska, W. 1977. Interactions ofPhragmites communis Trin. andCarex hudsonii Benett. Ekol. Polska 24: 431–436.Google Scholar
  196. Szczepanski, A. 1971. Allelopathy and other factors controlling the macrophyte production. Hydrobiologia 12: 193–197.Google Scholar
  197. Szczepanski, A. J. 1977. Allelopathy as a means of biological control of water weeds. Aquat. Bot. 3: 193–197.Google Scholar
  198. Taylor, D. R., Aarssen, L. W. & Loehle, C. 1990. On the relationship between r/K selection and environmental carrying capacity: a new habitat templet for plant life history strategies. Oikos 58: 239–250.Google Scholar
  199. Titus, J. E. & Adams, M. S. 1979. Coexistence and the comparative light relations of the submersed macrophytes,Myriophyllum spicatum (L.) andVallisneria americana Michx. Oecologia 40: 273–286.Google Scholar
  200. Titus, J. E. & Hoover, D. T. 1991. Toward predicting reproductive success in submersed freshwater angiosperms. Aquat. Bot. 41: 111–136.Google Scholar
  201. Tobiessen, P. & Snow, P. D. 1984. Temperature and light effects on the growth ofPotamogeton crispus in Collina Lake, New York State. Can. J. Bot. 62: 2822–2826.Google Scholar
  202. Townsend, C. R. 1989. The patch dynamics concept of stream community ecology. J. North Am. Benthol. Soc. 8: 36–50.Google Scholar
  203. Townsend, C. R. & Hildrew, A. G. 1994. Species traits in relation to a habitat templet for river systems. Freshw. Biol. 31: 265–276.Google Scholar
  204. Trewick, S. & Wade, P. M. 1986. The distribution and dispersion of two alien species of Impatiens, waterway weeds in the british isles, pp 351–359. In: Proceedings of the European Weed Research Society. 7th International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds. Loughborough, England.Google Scholar
  205. Triest, L. 1991. Isozymes in water plants: a bibliographic review, pp 15–26. In: Triest, L. (ed.) Isozymes in water plants. Op. Bot. Belg., vol. 4, Natl. Gard. Belgium, Meise, Belgium.Google Scholar
  206. Turala, K. 1969. Cyto-taxonomical studies inRanunculus subgenusBatrachium (DC.) A. Gray from Poland. Acta Biol. Cracoviensa, Ser. Bot. 12: 9–20.Google Scholar
  207. Turala, K. 1970. Cyto-taxonomical studies inRanunculus fluitans Lam. andR. penicillatus (Dumort.) Bab. from Lower Silesia (Poland). Preliminary report. Acta Biol. Cracoviensa, Ser. Bot. 13: 119–123.Google Scholar
  208. Turala-Szybowska, K. 1977. Karyological studies inRanunculus fluitans Lam. from Thuringia and Vilnius with its surroundings. Acta Biol. Cracoviensa, Ser. Bot. 20: 1–9.Google Scholar
  209. Turkington, R., Klein, E. & Chanway, C. P. 1993. Interactive effects of nutrients and disturbance: an experimental test of plant strategy theory. Ecology 74: 863–878.Google Scholar
  210. Tutin, E. D., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A. (eds.). 1964–1980. Flora Europea. 5 Vol. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  211. Van der, Pijl, L. 1972. Principles of Dispersal in Higher Plants. 2nd edn. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  212. Van der, Valk, A. G. 1981. Succession in wetlands: a gleasonian approach. Ecology 62: 688–696.Google Scholar
  213. Van der, Valk, A. G. & Davis, C. B. 1976. The seed banks of prairie glacial marshes. Can. J. Bot. 54: 1831–1838.Google Scholar
  214. Van der, Valk, A. G. & Davis, C. B. 1978. The role of seed banks in the vegetation dynamics of prairie glacial marshes. Ecology 59: 322–335.Google Scholar
  215. Van der, Velde, G. & van der, Heijden, L. A. 1981. The floral biology and seed production ofNymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze (Menyanthaceae). Aquat. Bot. 10: 261–294.Google Scholar
  216. Van, Vierssen, W. 1990. Relationships between survival strategies of aquatic weeds and control measures, pp 238–253. In: Pieterse, A. N. & Murphy, K. (eds.) Aquatic weeds. The ecology and management of nuisance aquatic vegetation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  217. Van Wijk, R. J. 1983. Life cycles and reproductive strategies ofPotamogeton pectinatus L. in the Netherlands and the Camargue (France), pp 317–321. In: Proceedings of an International Symposium on Aquatic Macrophytes, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  218. Van Wijk, R. J. 1986. Life cycle characteristics ofPotamogeton pectinatus L. in relation to control, pp 375–380. In: Proceedings of the European Weed Research Society. 7th International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds. Loughborough, England.Google Scholar
  219. Van, Wijk, R. J. 1989. Ecological studies onPotamogeton pectinatus L. III. Reproductive strategies and germination ecology. Aquat. Bot. 33: 271–299.Google Scholar
  220. Van, Wijk, R. J. & Trompenaars, H. J. A. J. 1985. On the germination of turions and the life cycle ofPotamogeton trichoides Cham. et Schld. Aquat. Bot. 22: 165–172.Google Scholar
  221. Verhoeven, J. T. A. 1979. The ecology ofRuppia-dominated communities in western Europe. I. Distribution ofRuppia representatives in relation to their autecology. Aquat. Bot. 6: 197–268.Google Scholar
  222. Wade, P. M. 1981. The long-term effects of aquatic herbicides on the macrophyte flora of freshwater habitats — a review, pp 234–240. In: Proceedings on Aquatic Weeds and their Control. Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  223. Wade, P. M. 1990a. The colonization of disturbed freshwater habitats by Characeae. Folia Geobot. Phytotaxon. 25: 275–278.Google Scholar
  224. Wade, P. M. 1990b. General biology and ecology of aquatic weeds, pp 17–30. In: Pieterse, A. N. & Murphy, K. (eds.) Aquatic weeds. The ecology and management of nuisance aquatic vegetation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  225. Waisel, Y. 1971. Seasonal activity and reproduction behaviour of some submerged hydrophytes in Israel. Hidrobiologia 12: 219–227.Google Scholar
  226. Webster, S. D. 1986. Two natural hybrids inRanunculus L. subgenusBatrachium (DC.) A. Gray. Watsonia 16: 25–30.Google Scholar
  227. Webster, S. D. 1988.Ranunculus penicillatus (Dumort.) Bab. in Great Britain and Ireland. Watsonia 17: 1–22.Google Scholar
  228. Webster, S. D. 1991.Ranunculus penicillatus (Dumort.) Bab. in Ireland. Irish Nat. 23: 346–354.Google Scholar
  229. Weller, M. W. 1990. Waterfowl management techniques for wetland enhancement, restoration and creation useful in mitigration procedures, pp 517–528. In: Kusler, J. A. & Kentula, M. E. (eds.) Wetland creation and restoration: the status of the science. Island Press, Washington, USA.Google Scholar
  230. Weiher, E. & Keddy, P. A. 1995. The assembly of experimental wetland plant communities. Oikos (In press).Google Scholar
  231. Wiegleb, G. & Herr, W. 1983. Taxonomie und Verbreitung vonRanunculus SubgenusBatrachium in niedersächsischten Fliessgewässern unter besonderer Berücksichtigung desRanunculus penicillatus-Komplexes. Gött. Flor. Rundbr. 17: 101–175.Google Scholar
  232. Wiegleb, G. & Brux, H. 1991. Comparison of life history characters of broad-leaved species of the genusPotamogeton L. I. General characterization of morphology and reproductive strategies. Aquat. Bot. 39: 131–146.Google Scholar
  233. Wiegleb, G. & Todeskino, D. 1985. Der Biologische Lebenszyklus vonPotamogeton alpinus und dessen Bedeutung für das Vorkommen der Art. Verhandl. Deutsch. Gesellsch. Ökol. 3: 191–198.Google Scholar
  234. Wiegleb, G. & Kadono, Y. 1989. Growth and development ofPotamogeton distinctus in an irrigation pond in SW Japan. Nord. J. Bot. 9: 241–249.Google Scholar
  235. Wiegleb, G., Brux, H. & Herr, W. 1991. Human impact on the ecological performance ofPotamogeton species in northwestern Germany. Vegetatio 97: 161–172.Google Scholar
  236. Wiegleb, G., Herr, W. & Todeskino, D. 1989. Ten years of vegetation dynamics in two rivulets in Lower Saxony (FRG). Vegetatio 82: 163–178.Google Scholar
  237. Wilcox, D. A. & Meeker, J. E. 1991. Disturbance effects on aquatic vegetation in regulated and unregulated lakes in northern Minnesota. Can. J. Bot. 69: 1542–1551.Google Scholar
  238. Willard, D. E., Finn, V. M., Levine, D. A. & Klarquist, J. E. 1990. Creation and restoration of riparian wetlands in the agricultural midwest, pp 327–350. In: Kusler, J. A. & Kentula, M. E. (eds.) Wetland creation and restoration: the status of the science. Island Press, Washington, USA.Google Scholar
  239. Williams, D. D. & Hynes, H. B. N. 1976. The recolonization mechanisms of stream benthos. Oikos 27: 265–272.Google Scholar
  240. Wilson, S. D. & Keddy, P. A. 1985. Plant zonation along a lake shore gradient: physiological response curves of component species. J. Ecol. 73: 851–860.Google Scholar
  241. Wilson, S. D. & Keddy, P. A. 1986a. Measuring diffuse competition along a environmental gradient: results from a shoreline plant community. Am. Nat. 127: 862–869.Google Scholar
  242. Wilson, S. D. & Keddy, P. A. 1986b. Species competitive ability and position along a natural stress/disturbance gradient. Ecology 67: 1236–1242.Google Scholar
  243. Wilson, S. D. & Keddy, P. A. 1991. Competition, survivorship and growth in macrophyte communities. Freshw. Biol. 25: 331–337.Google Scholar
  244. Wisheu, I. & Keddy, P. A. 1992. Competition and centrifugal organization of plant communities: theory and tests. J. Veget. Sci. 3: 147–156.Google Scholar
  245. Wium-Andersen, S., Anthoni, U., Christophersen, C. & Houen, G. 1982. Allelopathic effects on phytoplancton by substances isolated from aquatic macrophytes (Charales). Oikos 39: 187–190.Google Scholar
  246. Wright, J. F., Cameron, A. C., Hiley, P. D. & Berrie, A. D. 1982. Seasonal changes in biomass of macrophytes on shaded and unshaded sections of the River Lambourn, England. Freshw. Biol. 12: 271–283.Google Scholar
  247. Yeo, R. R. 1965. Life history of sago pondweed. Weeds 13: 314–321.Google Scholar
  248. Yeo, R. R. 1980. Spikerush may help control waterweeds. Calif. Agric., April 1980: 12–13.Google Scholar
  249. Yeo, R. R. & Thurston, J. R. 1984. The effect of dwarf spikerush (Eleocharis coloradoensis) on several submersed aquatic weeds. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 22: 52–56.Google Scholar
  250. Zander, B. & Wiegleb, G. 1987. Biosystematische Untersuchungen an Populationen vonRanunculus subgen.Batrachium in Nordwest Deutschland. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 109: 81–130.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. H. Barrat-Segretain
    • 1
  1. 1.URA CNRS 1974, Ecologie des Eaux Douces et des Grands FleuvesUniversité Claude Bernard Lyon IVilleurbanne CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations