Advertisement

Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 53–70 | Cite as

Tree gardening and taungya on Java: examples of agroforestry techniques in the humid tropics

  • K. F. Weersum
Article

Abstract

Agroforestry is a general concept for a land management system combining trees and agricultural crops. For application, various specific techniques can be chosen. Each of these techniques is adjusted to a specific set of environmental as well as socio-economic factors. Agroforestry cultivators or managers belonging to varying social strata and institutional groupings may practice different forms of agroforestry, even within the same general region. This is demonstrated on the basis of two contrasting types of agroforestry which are found on the Indonesian island of Java. Tree gardening or the cultivation of a wide variety of crops in a multiple-storeyed agroforestry system is an indegenous practice on private lands, while taungya or the intercropping of young tree plantations with staple crops is practiced on state forest lands. Both systems are described as to their management characteristics, past development as well as possibilities and constraints for further development. These two practices are then compared as to various attributes, like producer group, production purpose, area of cultivation, land ownership situation, structural organization of crop combinations, possibilities for improved cultivation techniques, and suitability for application in rural development for specific target groups.

Keywords

Agroforestry System Land Ownership Young Tree State Forest Private Land 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    bdoellah OS, Isnawan H & Herry (1979) Effect of culture on home-garden structure. Paper. 5th Int Symp Tropic Ecol, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Atmosoedarjo S Banyard SG (1978) The prosperity approach to forest community development on Java. Commonw For Rev 57 (2):89–98.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Atmosoedarjo S, Wijayakusumah K (1979) Ecological aspects of agroforestry in the lowland humid tropics: Southeast Asia. In:Chandler T, Spurgeon D, (ed), International cooperation in agroforestry. Nairobi: ICRAF, p 117–128.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Atmosoedarjo S, Wahyudi (1980) Forest management on Java in the development era. Ned Bosb Tijdschr 52 (6): 153–165.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Awan AB, Breure AL, Prasodjo T (1975) Home-gardens in the Kali Samin watershed. Working paper no. 30, FAO Upper Solo Watershed Management and Upland Development Project, Solo, Indonesia.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bompard J. Ducatillion C, Heckelsweiler P, Michon G (1980) A traditionalagricultural system: Village-forest-gardens in West Java. Thesis, Academie de Montpellier, Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Christanty L, Priyono (1979) Measurement of photosynthesis in home-garden plants. Paper.5th Int Symp Tropic Ecol, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Danoesastro H (1978) (The role of home-gardens for increasing the national resilience of rural populations). Agro Ekonomi (Yogyakarta) March:2–26 (in Indonesian).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fokkinga F (1934) (Forest reserves and indigenous perennial crop cultivation on Java and Madura). Tectona 27: 142–189 (in Dutch).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hadipurnomo (1980) Development of forest establishment techniques on state forest lands in relation to environmental demands. In: Proc Semin Experience Agrofor on Java, Indonesia. Forestry Faculty, Gadjahmada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, p 98–118 (in Indonesia with English summary).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Handoyono S, Ramlan A, Priatna R, Sujana A, Agusyadi (1979) (The vegetation situation in the Jatiluhur basin). Report on Seminar ‘The erosion situation in the Jatiluhur basin’. Institute of Ecology, Bandung, Indonesia (in Indonesian).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hardjosoediro S (1979) Forestry under conditions of population pressure in Indonesia. In: Dev Stud Centre Monogr no. 17:104–115. Australian National University.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hellinga G (1952) (Forestry and food production). Rimba Indonesia 1 (1):3–26 (in Dutch with English summary).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Johnson AW (1972) Individuality and experimentation in traditional agriculture. Hum Ecol 1 (2):149–159.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kartasubrata J (1979) Tumpangsari method for establishment of teak plantations in Java. Tropic Agric Res Ser (Japan) 12:141–152.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Karyono (1980) Traditional agroforestry systems in West Java. In: Proc Semin Experiences Agrofor on Java, Indonesia. Forestry Faculty, Gadjahmada University, Yogykkarta, Indonesia, p 179–195 (in Indonesian with English summary).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    King KFS (1968) Agri-sylviculture: The taungya system. Dept. of Forestry, Univ. Ibadan, Nigeria. Bulletin no 1.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Palte, JGL (1980) Some major socio-economic factors influencing the choice between, and/or the management of, agroforestry and other agricultural land-use systems in peasant economies. In: Proc Semin Experiences Agrofor on Java, Indonesia. Forestry Faculty, Gadjahmada, University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, p 200–202.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pelzer KJ (1945) Pioneer settlements in the Asiatric tropics. Amer Geogr Soc, Spec publ no. 29, Washington.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pickering K (1979) Soil conservation and rural institutions in Java. IDS Bull 10 (4): 60–66.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Soekartiko B (1980) Experiences with intensified taungya on forest lands. In: Proc. Semin Experiences with Agrofor on Java, Indonesia. Forestry Faculty, Gadjahmada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, p 141–158 (in Indonesian with English summary).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Soemarwoto O (1976) (The home-garden system: An ecological view about an integrated approach to prevention and restauration of critical lands). Bio Indonesia 2:19–32 (in Indonesian).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Soemarwoto O, Soemarwoto I (1979) The village home-garden: A traditional integrated system of man-plant-animals. Paper. International Conference on the Environment: Methods and strategies for integrated development. Belgium.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stoler A (1978) Garden use and household economy in rural Java. Bull. Indonesian Econ Stud 14:85–101.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Terra GJA (1953a) The distribution of mixed gardening on Java. Landbouw (Indonesia) 25:163–203.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Terra GJA (1953a) Mixed-garden horticulture in Java. Malayan J Tropic Geogr 1:33–43.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Terra GJA (1958) Farms systems in Southeast Asia Neth J Agric Sci 6 (3):157–182.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wiersum KF (1980) Possibilities for use and development of indigeneous agroforestry systems for sustained land use on Java. In: Furtado JI ed, Tropical ecology and development. Proc 5th Int Symp Tropic Ecol, Kuala Lumpur, p 515–521.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. F. Weersum
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SilvicultureAgricultural UniversityAH`WageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations