Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 205–208 | Cite as

Somatic embryogenesis in cultured mature zygotic embryos of Abies balsamea

  • Todd G. Guevin
  • Victor Micah
  • Edward G. Kirby
Research Note


Embryo suspensor masses (ESMs) were induced by culture of isolated mature zygotic embryos of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (Mill.)] on media containing 10 μM cytokinin [6-(γ-γ-dimethylallylamino)purine (2iP), 6-benzyladenine (BA), or thidiazuron (TDZ)]. Once induced, ESMs proliferated on media containing 2iP, BA or TDZ (10 μM) or on 4.5 μM BA in combination with 10 μM naphthyl-1-acetic acid. When ESMs were transferred to media containing 5–80 μM abscisic acid, cotyledonary-stage embryos were formed. Embryos were readily germinated on medium lacking growth regulators.

Key words

conifers cytokinins 



abscisic acid




embryo-suspensor mass




naphthyl-1-acetic acid


N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea (thidiazuron)


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Attree, SM & Fowke, LC (1993) Embryogeny of gymnosperms: advances in synthetic seed technology of conifers. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 35: 1–35Google Scholar
  2. Durzan, DJ & Gupta, PK (1987) Somatic embryogenesis and polyembryogenesis in Douglas-fir cell suspension cultures. Plant Sci. 52: 229–235Google Scholar
  3. Hakman, I & VonArnold, S (1985) Plantlet regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in Picea abies (Norway spruce). J. Plant Physiol. 121: 149–158Google Scholar
  4. Hartmann, S, Lang, H & Reuther, G (1992) Differentiation of somatic embryos from protoplasts isolated from embryogenic suspension cultures of Abies alba L. Plant Cell Rep. 11: 554–557Google Scholar
  5. Norgaard, JV & Krogstrup, P (1991) Cytokinin induced somatic embryogenesis from immature embryos of Abies nordmanniana. Plant Cell Rep. 9: 509–513Google Scholar
  6. Schuller, A & Reuther, G (1993) Response of Abies alba embryonal-suspensor mass to various carbohydrate treatments. Plant Cell Rep. 12: 199–202Google Scholar
  7. Schuller, A, Reuther, G & Geier, T (1989) Somatic embryogenesis from seed explants of Abies alba. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 17: 53–58Google Scholar
  8. Tautorus, TE, Fowke, LC & Dunstan, DI (1991) Somatic embryogenesis in conifers. Can. J. Bot. 69: 1873–1899Google Scholar
  9. Verhagen, SA & Wann, SR (1989) Norway spruce somatic embryogenesis: high frequency initiation from light cultured mature embryos. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 16: 103–111Google Scholar
  10. vonArnold, S (1987) Improved efficiency of somatic embryogenesis in mature embryos of Picea abies L. (Norway spruce). J. Plant Physiol. 128: 261–265Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Todd G. Guevin
    • 1
  • Victor Micah
    • 1
  • Edward G. Kirby
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesRutgers UniversityNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations