Advertisement

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 320–335 | Cite as

The behaviour of Atlantic salmon in relation to efficient cage-rearing

  • Jon-Erik Juell
Paper

Summary

To maintain salmon farming as a viable industry it is necessary to continue to focus on the well-being of the fish from hatching to harvesting. This requires intimate knowledge of all aspects of salmon biology. Understanding the behaviour of farmed salmon is an essential part as this could suggest ways of preventing stress and diseases rather than merely treating their symptoms. This review attempts to summarize current knowledge of salmon behaviour in sea cages. Major modes of behaviour have been described and possible control mechanisms have been suggested. Behavioural studies of salmon in this particular system, however, are still at an early stage. Further research is needed to verify and deepen the current understanding. In future research the behavioural ontogeny of cultured salmon from hatching to harvesting should receive more attention. For example, the effect of smolt-rearing procedures on subsequent behaviour in sea cages is unclear. An ontogenetic approach would probably pay off in terms of a better holistic understanding of the mechanisms controlling the behaviour of cultured salmon in different stages of the production process.

The present level of understanding should provide a basis for developing simple models of behaviour in cages from which meaningful hypotheses can be formulated. Experiments should primarily be carried out in a realistic rearing environment, but the inherent methodological problems of carrying out full-scale experiments make it difficult to test hypotheses that require detailed description of the behaviour of individuals. The transfer of a small number of individuals from larger groups subjected to different treatments to an experimental arena, might overcome these problems. This approach proved fruitful in an unpublished study that tested the competitive ability of individuals reared under different feeding regimes.

This paper proposes several ways to improve the management of salmon behaviour and growth in sea cages. Some of these suggestions should be further investigated before they are adopted by the salmon industry in general. Daily management would be improved by methods to observe the fish complementary to visual inspection. Continuous hydroacoustic monitoring of sea cages provides this and would be especially helpful in large cages holding a considerable value of fish. In addition to demand feeding and routine behavioural observations (e.g. early warning of disease), this would provide useful information about the accumulation of dead fish on the cage bottom and the abundance of wild fish under cages (predators, food-waste eaters). Another important application could be to monitor the fish biomass. Fish counters are sometimes used during stocking of sea cages with smolts, but the error in estimated numbers remains unknown. Unregistered theft, escapees and mortality in the period prior to harvesting can easily increase errors in such estimates. A reliable hydroacoustic method of estimating biomass would thus significantly improve management control. Such work is in progress (Furuzawa et al., 1984; Burczynski et al., 1990; Bjordal et al., 1993; Dunn and Dalland, 1993).

Keywords

Atlantic Salmon Fish Biomass Farm Salmon Experimental Arena Fish Counter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alanärä, A. (1992a) Demand feeding as a self-regulating feeding system for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in net pens. Aquaculture 108, 347–56.Google Scholar
  2. Alanärä, A. (1992b) The effect of time-restricted demand feeding on feeding activity, growth and feed conversion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 108, 357–68.Google Scholar
  3. Ali, M.A. (1959) The ocular structure, retinomotor and photo-behavioural responses of juvenile Pacific salmon. Can. J. Zool. 37, 965–96.Google Scholar
  4. Austreng, E., Storebakken, T. and Åsgård, T. (1987) Growth rate estimates for cultured Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. Aquaculture 60, 157–60.Google Scholar
  5. Bakshtanskiy, E.L., Nesterov, V.S. and Neklyudov, M.N. (1988) Development of schooling behaviour in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during seaward migration. J. Ichthyol. 28, 91–101.Google Scholar
  6. Bjordal, Å., Floen, S., Fosseidengen, J.E., Totland, B., Øvredal, J.T., Fernö, A. and Huse, I. (1986) Monitoring biological and environmental parameters in aquaculture. Modeling, Identification and Control 7, 209–18.Google Scholar
  7. Bjordal, Å., Fernö, A., Furevik, D.M. and Huse, I. (1988) Effects on salmon (Salmo salar) from different operational procedures in fish farming. Int. Counc. Explor. Sea C.M. F:16.Google Scholar
  8. Bjordal, Å., Juell, J.E., Lindem, T. and Fernö, A. (1993) Hydroacoustic monitoring and feeding control in cage rearing of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). In Reinertsen, H., Dahle, L.A., Jørgensen, L. and Tvinnereim, K., eds. Fish Farming Technology. Rotterdam: Balkema, pp. 203–8.Google Scholar
  9. Blyth, P.J., Purser, G.J. and Russell, J.F. (1993) Detection of feeding rhythms in seacaged Atlantic salmon using new feeder technology. In Reinertsen, H., Dahle, L.A., Jørgensen, L. and Tvinnereim, K., eds. Fish Farming Technology. Rotterdam: Balkema, pp. 209–16.Google Scholar
  10. Boujard, T. and Leatherland, J.F. (1992) Circadian rhythms and feeding times in fishes. Env. Biol. Fishes 35, 109–31.Google Scholar
  11. Brett, J.R. (1979) Environmental factors and growth. In Hoar, W.S., Randall, D.J. and Brett, J.R., eds. Fish Physiology, Vol. 8, Bioenergetics and Growth. New York: Academic Press, pp. 161–260.Google Scholar
  12. Bullock, A.M. (1988) Solar ultraviolet radiation: a potential environmental hazard in the cultivation of farmed fish. In Muir, J.F. and Roberts, R.J., eds. Recent Advances in Aquaculture, Vol. 3. London: Croom Helm, pp. 139–224.Google Scholar
  13. Burczynski, J.J., Johnson, R.L., Kreiberg, H. and Kirchner, W.B. (1990) Acoustic estimation of dense aggregations of fish in sea pens. Rapp. P-v. Réun. Cons. int. Explor. Mer 189, 54–64.Google Scholar
  14. Cho, C.Y. (1992) Feeding systems for rainbow trout and other salmonids with reference to current estimates of energy and protein requirements. Aquaculture 100, 107–23.Google Scholar
  15. Christiansen, J.S. (1991) Responses of salmonid fish to sustained swimming. PhD thesis, Univ. Tromsø, Norway. 59 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Christiansen, J.S., Svendsen, Y.S. and Jobling, M. (1992) The combined effects of stocking density and sustained exercise on the behaviour, food intake and growth of juvenile Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.). Can. J. Zool. 70, 115–22.Google Scholar
  17. Clark, C.W. and Levy, D.A. (1988) Diel vertical migrations by juvenile sockeye salmon and the antipredation window. Am. Nat. 131, 271–90.Google Scholar
  18. Davies, M.W. and Olla, B.L. (1987) Aggression and variation in growth of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) juveniles in sea water: effects of limited rations. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 44, 192–7.Google Scholar
  19. Dill, L.M. (1983) Adaptive flexibility in the foraging behaviour of fishes. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 40, 398–408.Google Scholar
  20. Døving, K.B., Westerberg, H. and Johnsen, P.B. (1985) Role of olfaction in the behavioural and neuronal responses of Atlantic salmon to hydrographic stratification. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 42, 1658–67.Google Scholar
  21. Dunn, M. and Dalland, K. (1993) Observing behaviour and growth using the Simrad FCM 160 fish cage monitoring system. In Reinertsen, H., Dahle, L.A., Jørgensen, L. and Tvinnereim, K., eds. Fish Farming Technology. Rotterdam: Balkema, pp. 269–74.Google Scholar
  22. Fernö, A., Furevik, D., Huse, I. and Bjordal, Å. (1988) A multiple approach to behaviour studies of salmon reared in marine net pens. Int. Counc. Explor. Sea C.M. F:15Google Scholar
  23. Fernö, A., Huse, I., Juell, J.E. and Bjordal, Å. (1995) The vertical distribution of Atlantic salmon in net pens: trade-off between surface light avoidance and food attraction. Aquaculture (in press).Google Scholar
  24. Floen, S., Totland, B. and Øvredal, J.T. (1988a) A PC-based echo integration system for fish behaviour studies. Int. Counc. Explor. Sea C.M. B:35.Google Scholar
  25. Floen, S., Totland, B. and Øvredal, J.T. (1988b) Automatic recording of fish heart rate on a personal computer. Int. Counc. Explor. Sea C.M. B:34.Google Scholar
  26. Furevik, D.M., Bjordal, Å., Huse, I. and Fernö, A. (1993) Surface activity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in net pens. Aquaculture 110, 119–28.Google Scholar
  27. Furuzawa, M., Ishii, K., Miyanohana, Y. and Maniwa, Y. (1984) Experimental investigation of an acoustic method to estimate fish abundance using culture nets. Jap. J. appl. Phys. 23, 101–3.Google Scholar
  28. Guthrie, D.M. and Muntz, W.R.A. (1993) Role of vision in fish behaviour. In Pitcher, T.J., ed. The Behaviour of Teleost Fishes, 2nd edn. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 89–128.Google Scholar
  29. Hansen, L.P., Jonsson, N. and Jonsson, B. (1993) Oceanic migration in homing Atlantic salmon. Anim. Behav. 45, 927–41.Google Scholar
  30. Hansen, T., Stefansson, S.O. and Taranger, G.L. (1992) Growth rate and sexual maturation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, reared in sea cages at two different light regimes. Aquacult. Fish. Manage. 23, 275–80.Google Scholar
  31. Hislop, J.R.G. and Shelton, R.G.J. (1993) Marine predators and prey of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In Mills, D., ed. Salmon in the Sea and New Enhancement Strategies. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 104–18.Google Scholar
  32. Holm, M., Huse, I., Døving, K.B. and Aure, J. (1982) Behaviour of Atlantic salmon smolts during seaward migration. Int. Counc. Explor. Sea C.M. M:7.Google Scholar
  33. Hughes, R.N., Kaiser, M.J., Mackney, P.A. and Warburton, K. (1992) Optimizing foraging behaviour through learning. J. Fish Biol. 41, 77–91.Google Scholar
  34. Huntingford, F.A. and Thorpe, J.E. (1992) Behavioural concepts in aquaculture. In Thorpe, J.E. and Huntingford, F.A., eds. The Importance of Feeding Behaviour for the Efficient Culture of Salmonid Fishes. Baton Rouge, LA: World Aquaculture Society, pp. 1–3.Google Scholar
  35. Huse, I. and Holm, J.C. (1993) Vertical distribution of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) as a function of illumination. J. Fish Biol. 43 (Suppl. A), 147–56.Google Scholar
  36. Huse, I., Bjordal, Å, Fernö, A. and Furevik, D. (1990) The effect of shading in pen rearing of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquacult. Eng. 9, 235–44.Google Scholar
  37. Jákupsstovu, J.I. (1988) Exploitation and migration of salmon in Faroese waters. In Mills, D. and Piggins, D., eds. Atlantic Salmon: Planning for the Future. London: Croom Helm, pp. 458–82.Google Scholar
  38. Jobling, M. (1985) Growth. In Tytler, P. and Calow, P., eds. Fish Energetics — New Perspectives. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, pp. 213–30.Google Scholar
  39. Juell, J.E. (1988) Feeding salmon (Salmo salar) in sea cages: maximum food intake measured by acoustic detection of food waste. Master thesis, Univ. Bergen, Norway. 106 pp. (in Norwegian).Google Scholar
  40. Juell, J.E. (1991) Hydroacoustic detection of food waste — a method to estimate food intake of fish populations in sea cages. Aquacult. Eng. 10, 207–17.Google Scholar
  41. Juell, J.E. and Westerberg, H. (1993) An ultrasonic telemetric system for automatic positioning of individual fish used to track salmon (Salmo salar L.) in a sea cage. Aquacult. Eng. 12, 1–18.Google Scholar
  42. Juell, J.E., Furevik, D. and Bjordal, Å. (1993) Demand feeding in salmon farming by hydro-acoustic food detection. Aquacult. Eng. 12, 155–67.Google Scholar
  43. Juell, J.E., Fernö, A., Furevik, D. and Huse, I. (1994a) Influence of hunger level and food availability on the spatial distribution of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in sea cages. Aquacult. Fish. Manage. 25, 439–51.Google Scholar
  44. Juell, J.E., Bjordal, Å., Fernö, A. and Huse, I. (1994b) Effect of feeding intensity on food intake and growth of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in sea cages. Aquacult. Fish. Manage. 25, 453–64.Google Scholar
  45. Kadri, S., Metcalfe, N.B., Huntingford, F.A. and Thorpe, J.E. (1991) Daily feeding rhythms in Atlantic salmon in sea cages. Aquaculture 92, 219–24.Google Scholar
  46. Kils, U. (1989) Some aspects of schooling for aquaculture. Int. Counc. Explor. Sea C.M. F:12.Google Scholar
  47. Kråkenes, R., Hansen, T., Stefansson, S.O. and Taranger, G.L. (1991) Continuous light increases growth rate of Atlantic salmon postsmolts in sea cages. Aquaculture 95, 281–7.Google Scholar
  48. Lie, Ø. and Huse, I. (1992) The effect of starvation on the composition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fisk. Dir. Skr., Ser. Ernœring. 5, 11–16.Google Scholar
  49. Lima, S.T. and Dill, L.M. (1990) Behavioural decisions made under the risk of predation: a review and prospectus. Can. J. Zool. 68, 619–40.Google Scholar
  50. Levy, D.A. (1990) Sensory mechanisms and selective advantage for diel vertical migration in juvenile sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 47, 1796–1802.Google Scholar
  51. MacLennan, D.N. and Simmonds, E.J. (1992) Fisheries Acoustics. London: Chapman and Hall. 325 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Magurran, A.E. (1984) Gregarious goldfish. New Scientist (9 August), 32–33.Google Scholar
  53. Magurran, A.E. (1993) Individual differences and alternative behaviours In Pitcher, T.J., ed. The Behaviour of Teleost Fishes, 2nd edn. London: Chapman and Hall, pp. 441–78.Google Scholar
  54. Meriwether, F.H. (1986) An inexpensive demand feeder for cage-reared tilapia. Progve. Fish-Cult. 48, 226–8.Google Scholar
  55. Metcalfe, N.B. (1990) Aquaculture. In Monaghan, P. and Wood-Gush, D. eds. Managing the Behaviour of Animals. London: Chapman and Hall, pp. 123–54.Google Scholar
  56. Metcalfe, N.B., Huntingford, F.A. and Thorpe, J.E. (1992) Social effects on appetite and development in Atlantic salmon. In Thorpe, J.E. and Huntingford, F.A., eds. The Importance of Feeding Behaviour for the Efficient Culture of Salmonid Fishes. Baton Rouge, LA: World Aquaculture Society, pp. 29–40.Google Scholar
  57. Noakes, D.L.G. and Grant, J.W. (1992) Feeding and social behaviour of brook and lake charr. In Thorpe, J.E. and Huntingford, F.A., eds. The Importance of Feeding Behaviour for the Efficient Culture of Salmonid Fishes. Baton Rouge, LA: World Aquaculture Society, pp. 13–20.Google Scholar
  58. Olla, B., Davis, M.W. and Ryer, C.H. (1992) Foraging and predator avoidance in hatcheryreared Pacific salmon: achievement and behavioural potential. In Thorpe, J.E. and Huntingford, F.A., eds. The Importance of Feeding Behaviour for the Efficient Culture of Salmonid Fishes. Baton Rouge, LA: World Aquaculture Society, pp. 5–12.Google Scholar
  59. Phillips, M.J. (1985) Behaviour of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, in marine cages. Aquacult. Fish. Manage. 1, 223–32.Google Scholar
  60. Pitcher, T.J. and Parrish, J. (1993) Functions of shoaling behaviour in teleosts. In Pitcher, T.J., ed. The Behaviour of Teleost Fishes, 2nd edn. London: Chapman and Hall, pp. 363–440.Google Scholar
  61. Rowe, D.K., Thorpe, J.E. and Shanks, A.M. (1991) Role of fat stores in the maturation of male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 48, 405–13.Google Scholar
  62. Ryer, C.H. and Olla, B. (1992) Social mechanisms facilitating exploitation of spatially variable ephemeral food patches in a pelagic marine fish. Anim. Behav. 44, 69–74.Google Scholar
  63. Saunders, R.L. and Harmon, P.R. (1988) Extended daylength increases postsmolt growth of Atlantic salmon. World Aquacult. 19, 72–3.Google Scholar
  64. Shaw, E. (1961) Minimal light intensity and the dispersal of fish schools. Bull. Inst. Oceanogr. No. 1213. 8 pp.Google Scholar
  65. Skilbrei, O., Jørstad, K., Holm, M., Farestveit, E., Grimnes, A. and Aardal, L. (1995) A new release system for coastal ranching of salmon, and behavioural patterns of released smolts. Nordic. Fresh. Res. (in press).Google Scholar
  66. Smith, G.W., Hawkins, A.D., Urquhart, G.G. and Shearer, W.M. (1981) Orientation and energetic efficiency in the offshore movements of returning Atlantic salmon. Scot. Fish. Res. Rep. No. 21. 22 pp.Google Scholar
  67. Smith, I.P., Metcalfe, N.B., Huntingford, F.A. and Kadri, S. (1993) Daily and seasonal patterns in the feeding behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in a sea cage. Aquaculture 117, 165–78.Google Scholar
  68. Storebakken, T. and Austreng, E. (1988) Feed intake measurements in fish using radioactive isotopes: II. Experiments with Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout in sea pens. Aquaculture 70, 277–88.Google Scholar
  69. Storebakken, T., Hung, S.S.O., Calvert, C.C. and Plisetskaya, E.M. (1991) Nutrient partitioning in rainbow trout at different feeding rates. Aquaculture 96, 191–203.Google Scholar
  70. Strademeyer, L. (1992) Appearance and taste of pellets influence feeding behaviour of Atlantic salmon. In Thorpe, J.E. and Huntingford, F.A., eds. The Importance of Feeding Behaviour for the Efficient Culture of Salmonid Fishes. Baton Rouge, LA: World Aquaculture Society, pp. 21–28.Google Scholar
  71. Sutterlin, A.M. and Stevens, E.D. (1992) Thermal behaviour of rainbow trout and Arctic charr in cages moored in stratified waters. Aquaculture 102, 65–75.Google Scholar
  72. Sutterlin, A.M., Jokola, K.J. and Holte, B. (1979) Swimming behaviour of salmonid fish in ocean pens. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 36, 948–54.Google Scholar
  73. Tackett, D.L., Carter, R.R. and Allen, K.O. (1988) Daily variations in feed consumption by channel catfish. Progve. Fish-Cult. 50, 107–10.Google Scholar
  74. Talbot, C. (1993) Some biological and physical constraints to the design of feeding regimes for salmonids in intensive cultivation. In Reinertsen, H., Dahle, L.A., Jørgensen, L. and Tvinnereim, K., eds. Fish Farming Technology. Rotterdam: Balkema, pp. 19–25.Google Scholar
  75. Taranger, G.L., Haux, C., Walther, B.T., Stefansson, S.O., Björnsson, B.T. and Hansen, T. (1991) Photoperiodic control of growth, incidence of sexual maturation and ovulation in adult Atlantic salmon. In Scott, A.P., Sumpter, J.P., Kime, D.E. and Rolfe, M.S. Proc. Fourth Int. Symp. Reproductive Physiology of Fish. Sheffield: FishSymp 91, pp. 145–7.Google Scholar
  76. Thommassen, J.M. and Lekang, O.I. (1993) Optimal distribution of feed in sea cages. In Reinertsen, H., Dahle, L.A., Jørgensen, L. and Tvinnereim, K., eds. Fish Farming Technology. Rotterdam: Balkema, pp. 439–42.Google Scholar
  77. Thorpe, J.E. (1988) Salmon migration. Sci. Prog. Oxf. 72, 345–70.Google Scholar
  78. Thorpe, J.E. and Huntingford, F.A. (eds) (1992) The Importance of Feeding Behaviour for the Efficient Culture of Salmonid Fishes. Baton Rouge, LA: The World Aquaculture Society. 60 pp.Google Scholar
  79. Thorpe, J.E. and Wankowski, J.W.J. (1979) Feed presentation and food particle size for juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. In Halver, J.E. and Tiews, K., eds. Finfish Nutrition and Fishfeed Technology. Berlin: Heenemann, pp. 501–13.Google Scholar
  80. Thorpe, J.E., Talbot, C., Miles, M.S. and Keay, D.S. (1990b) Control of maturation in cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in pumped sea-water tanks by restricting food intake. Aquaculture 86, 315–26.Google Scholar
  81. Thorpe, J.E., Talbot, C., Miles, M.S., Rawlings, C. and Keay, D.S. (1990a) Food consumption in 24 hours by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in a sea cage. Aquaculture 90, 41–7.Google Scholar
  82. Tipping, J.M., Rathvon, R.L. and Moore, S.T. (1986) Use of demand feeders in large steelhead rearing ponds. Progve. Fish-Cult. 48, 303–4.Google Scholar
  83. Totland, G.K., Kryvi, H., Jødestøl, K.A., Christiansen, E.N., Tangerås, A. and Slinde, E. (1987) Growth and composition of the swimming muscle of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) during long-term sustained swimming. Aquaculture 66, 299–313.Google Scholar
  84. Usher, M.L., Talbot, C. and Eddy, F.B. (1991) Effects of transfer to seawater on growth and feeding in Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar L.) Aquaculture 94, 309–26.Google Scholar
  85. Wankowski, J.W.J. (1979) Morphological limitations, prey size selectivity and growth response of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). J. Fish Biol. 14, 89–100.Google Scholar
  86. Westerberg, H. (1982a) Ultrasonic tracking of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) I. Movements in coastal regions. Rep. Inst. Freshwat. Res. (Drottningholm) 60, 81–101.Google Scholar
  87. Westerberg, H. (1982b) Ultrasonic tracking of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) II. Swimming depth and temperature stratification. Rep. Inst. Freshwat. Res. (Drottningholm) 60, 102–15.Google Scholar
  88. Wright, D.E. and Eastcott, A. (1982) Operant conditioning of feeding behaviour and patterns of feeding in thick-lipped mullet, Crenimugil labrosus (Risso) and common carp, Cryprinus carpio (L.). J. Fish Biol. 20, 625–34.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jon-Erik Juell
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Marine ResearchBergenNorway

Personalised recommendations