Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 65–91

Are marine reserves effective in management of reef fisheries?

  • Callum M. Roberts
  • Nicholas V. C. Polunin
Article

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abramsky, Z. and Tracy, C.R. (1979) Population biology of a ‘noncycling’ population of prairie voles and a hypothesis on the role of migration in regulating microtine cycles. Ecology 60, 349–61.Google Scholar
  2. Alcala, A.C. (1981) Fish yield of coral reefs of Sumilon Island, central Philippines. Natl Res. Counc. Philipp. Res. Bull. 36, 1–7.Google Scholar
  3. Alcala, A.C. (1988) Effects of marine reserves on coral fish abundances and yields of Philippine coral reefs. Ambio 17, 194–9.Google Scholar
  4. Alcala, A.C. and Gomez, E.D. (1985) Fish yields of coral reefs in central Philippines. Proc. 5th Int. Coral Reef Cong. 5, 521–4.Google Scholar
  5. Alcala, A.C. and Gomez, E.D. (1987) Dynamiting coral reefs for fish: a resource destructive fishing method. In Salvat, B., ed. Human Impacts on Coral Reefs: Facts and Recommendations. French Polynesia: Antenne Museum, E.P.H.E., pp. 51–60.Google Scholar
  6. Alcala, A.C. and Russ, G.R. (1990) A direct test of the effects of protective management on abundance and yield of tropical marine resources. J. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer 46, 40–47.Google Scholar
  7. Anon. (1971) Conservation policy in the Seychelles. Mahe: Government of the Seychelles. 10 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Ansley, H.L. and Harris, C.D. (1981) Migration and standing stock of fishes associated with artificial and natural reef on Georgia's outer continental shelf. Final report, Dingell-Johnson Project F-31. Georgia: Georgia Dept Nat. Res. 39 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Ayling, A.M. and Ayling, A.L. (1986) A biological survey of selected reefs in the Capricorn Section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Unpubl. rep. to Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville. 61 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Beinssen, K. (1988) Boult reef revisited. Reeflections (Newslet. Great Barrier Reef Mar. Park Authority, Townsville), 21, 8–9.Google Scholar
  11. Beinssen, K. (1989) Results of the Boult Reef replenishment area study. Unpubl. rep. by Dept Conserv., Parks Wildl., Queensland Natl. Parks Wildl. Serv., Brisbane. 40 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Bell, J.D. (1983) Effects of depth and marine reserve fishing restrictions on the structure of a rocky reef fish assemblage in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. J. appl. Ecol. 20, 357–69.Google Scholar
  13. Beverton, R.J.H. and Holt, S.J. (1957) On the dynamics of exploited fish populations. Fishery Invest., Lond. 19, 533 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Bohnsack, J.A. (1982) Effects of piscivorous predator removal on coral reef fish community structure. In Caillet, G.M. and Simenstad, C.A., eds. Gutshop '81: Fish Food Habits and Studies. Seattle: Washington Seagrant Publ, Univ. Washington, pp. 258–67.Google Scholar
  15. Bohnsack, J.A. (1990) The potential of marine fishery reserves for reef fish management in the U.S. southern Atlantic. Miami: NOAA tech. Memo NMFS-SEFC-261. 40 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Bohnsack, J.A., Sutherland, D.L., Harper, D.E., McClellan, D.B., Hulsbeck, M.W. and Holt, C.M. (1989) The effects of fish trap mesh size on reef fish catch off southeastern Florida. Mar. Fish. Rev. 51, 36–46.Google Scholar
  17. Brothers, E.B., Williams, D.McB. and Sale, P.F. (1983) Length of larval life in twelve families of fishes at “One Tree Lagoon”, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Mar. Biol. 76, 319–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bryant, H.E., Dewey, M.R., Funicelli, N.A., Ludwig, G.M., Meineke, D.A. and Mengel, J. (1989) Movement of five selected species of fish in Everglades National Park. Abstract. Bull. mar. Sci. 44, 515.Google Scholar
  19. Buechner, M. (1987) Conservation in insular parks: simulation models of factors affecting the movement of animals across park boundaries. Biol. Conserv. 41, 57–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Buxton, C.D. and Allen, J.A. (1989) Mark and recapture studies of two reef sparids in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park. Koedoe 32, 39–45.Google Scholar
  21. Buxton, C.D. and Smale, M.J. (1989) Abundance and distribution patterns of three temperate marine reef fish (Teleostei: Sparidae) in exploited and unexploited areas off the Southern Cape coast. J. appl. Ecol. 26, 441–51.Google Scholar
  22. Carpenter, R.C. (1986) Partitioning herbivory and its effects on coral reef algal communities. Ecol. Monogr. 56, 345–63.Google Scholar
  23. Clark, J.R., Causey, B. and Bohnsack, J.A. (1989) Benefits from coral reef protection: Looe Key Reef, Florida. In Magoon, O.T., Converse, H., Miner, D., Tobin, L.T. and Clark, D. eds. Coastal Zone '89: Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management, Charleston 11–14 July 1989. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 3076–86.Google Scholar
  24. Colin, P.L., Shapiro, D.Y. and Weiler, D. (1987) Aspects of the reproduction of two groupers, Epinephelus guttatus and E. striatus in the West Indies. Bull. mar. Sci. 40, 220–30.Google Scholar
  25. Corpuz, V.T., Castaneda, P. and Sy, J.C. (1985) Traditional muro-ami, an effective but resource destructive coral reef fishing gear. ICLARM Quart. 8(1), 12–13.Google Scholar
  26. Craik, W. (1979) Survey identifies trends in reef fish catches. Aust. Fish. 1979, 29–32.Google Scholar
  27. Cushing, D.H. (1973) Recruitment and parent stock in fishes. WSG 73–1. Division of Marine Fish, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. 197 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Cushing, D.H. (1975) Fisheries Resources of the Sea and their Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 87 pp.Google Scholar
  29. Davis, G.E. (1981) On the role of underwater parks and sanctuaries in the management of coastal resources in the southeastern United States. Env. Conserv. 8, 67–70.Google Scholar
  30. Davis, G.E. (1989) Designated harvest refugia: the next stage of marine fishery management in California. CalCOFI Rep. 30, 53–8.Google Scholar
  31. Davis, G.E. and Dodrill, J.W. (1980) Marine parks and sanctuaries for spiny lobster fisheries management. Proc. Gulf Caribb. Fish. Inst., Univ. Myiami 32, 194–207.Google Scholar
  32. Davis, G.E. and Dodrill, J.W. (1989) Recreational fishing and population dynamics of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, in Florida Bay, Everglades National Park, 1977–1980. Bull. mar. Sci. 44, 78–88.Google Scholar
  33. Doherty, P.J. and Sale, P.F. (1985) Predation on juvenile coral reef fishes: an exclusion experiment. Coral Reefs 4, 225–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Done, T.J. (1985) Effects of two Acanthaster outbreaks on coral community structure. The meaning of devastation. Proc. 5th Int. Coral Reef Cong., Tahiti (27 May–6 June 1985) 5, 315–320.Google Scholar
  35. Dubin, R.E. and Baker, J.D. (1982) Two types of cover-seeking behavior at sunset by the princess parrotfish, Scarus taeniopterus, at Barbados, West Indies. Bull. mar. Sci. 32, 572–83.Google Scholar
  36. Edwards, R.R.C. (1984) Comparisons of growth in weight of temperate and tropical marine fish counterparts. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41, 1381–4.Google Scholar
  37. Ehrlich, P.R. (1975) The population biology of coral reef fishes. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 6, 211–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ferry, R.E. and Kohler, C.C. (1987) Effects of trap fishing on fish populations inhabiting a fringing coral reef. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 7, 580–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Foster, N. (1986) National marine sanctuaries — saving offshore ecosystems. Sea Technol. 1986 (11), 25–9.Google Scholar
  40. Frith, C.A., Leis, J.M. and Goldman, B. (1986) Currents in the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef lagoon and their relevance to potential movements of larvae. Coral Reefs 5, 81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Funicelli, N.A., Meineke, D.A., Bryant, H.E., Dewey, M.R., Ludwig, G.M. and Mengel, L.S. (1989) Movements of striped mullet, Mugil cephalus, tagged in Everglades National Park, Florida. Bull. mar. Sci. 44, 171–8.Google Scholar
  42. Gaines, M.S. and McClenaghan, L.R. (1980) Dispersal in small mammals. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11, 163–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gaines, M.S., Vivas, A.M. and Baker, C.L. (1979) An experimental analysis of dispersal in fluctuating vole populations: demographic parameters. Ecology 60, 814–28.Google Scholar
  44. Garcia, S. (1986) A highly successful seasonal trawling ban, the Cyprus Effect. ICLARM Quart. 9(1), 3–4.Google Scholar
  45. Getz, W.M. and Haight, R.G. (1989) Population harvesting. Demographic Models of Fish, Forest, and Animal Resources. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press. 392 pp.Google Scholar
  46. Glynn, P.W. (1988) Predation on coral reefs: some key processes, concepts and research directions. Proc. 6th int. Coral Reef Symp., Townsville (8–12 August 1988) 1, 51–62.Google Scholar
  47. Goeden, G.B. (1978) A monograph on the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepede). Queensland Fisheries Service, brisbane Res. Bull. No. 1. 42 pp.Google Scholar
  48. Goeden, G.B. (1979) Is the Great Barrier Reef being overfished? Aust. Fish. 1979, 18–20.Google Scholar
  49. Goeden, G.B. (1982) Intensive fishing and a ‘keystone’ predator species: ingredients for community instability. Biol. Conserv. 22, 273–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gomez, E.D., Alcala, A.C. and Yap, H.T. (1987) Other fishing methods destructive to coral reefs. In Salvat, B., ed. Human Impacts on Coral Reefs: Facts and Recommendations. French Polynesia: Antenne Museum, E.P.H.E., pp. 67–75.Google Scholar
  51. Grimes, C.B. (1987) Reproductive biology of the Lutjanidae: a review. In Polovina, J.J. and Ralston, S., eds. Tropical Snappers and Groupers: Biology and Fisheries Management. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp 239–94.Google Scholar
  52. Gruber, S.H., Nelson, D.R. and Morrissey, J.F. (1988) Patterns of activity and space utilisation of lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris, in a shallow Bahamian lagoon. Bull. mar. Sci. 43, 61–76.Google Scholar
  53. Gulland, J.A. (1982) The management of tropical multispecies fisheries. In Pauly, D. And Murphy, G.I., eds. Theory and Management of Tropical Multispecies Fisheries. Manila: ICLARM, pp. 287–98.Google Scholar
  54. Hall, C.A.S. (1988) An assessment of several of the historically most influential theoretical models used in ecology and of the data provided in their support. Ecol. Model. 43, 5–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hamilton, W.D. and May, R.M. (1977) Dispersal in stable habitats. Nature, Lond. 269, 578–81.Google Scholar
  56. Harmelin-Vivien, M.L. and Laboute, P. (1983) Preliminary data on underwater effects of cyclones on the outer reef slopes of Tikehau Island (Tuamotu, French Polynesia) and its fish fauna. Abstract. Ann. meeting int. Soc. Reef Studies. December 1983. Nice: Univ. of Nice, France. p. 28.Google Scholar
  57. Hay, M.E. (1984) Patterns of fish and urchin grazing on Caribbean coral reefs: are previous results typical? Ecology 65, 446–54.Google Scholar
  58. Hughes, T.P. (1989) Community structure and diversity of coral reefs: the role of history. Ecology 70, 275–9.Google Scholar
  59. Jeffs, A. (1988) Leigh marine reserve a decade on. Catch (NZ Min. Agric. Fish.) 15, 12–13.Google Scholar
  60. Johannes, R.E. (1978) Reproductive strategies of coastal marine fishes in the tropics. Env. Biol. Fishes 3, 65–84.Google Scholar
  61. Johannes, R.E. (1980) Using knowledge of the reproductive behavior of reef and lagoon fishes to improve fishing yields. In Bardach, J.E. Magnuson, J.J., May, R.C. and Reinhart, J.M., eds. Fish Behavior and its Use in the Capture and Culture of Fishes. Manila: ICLARM, pp. 247–70.Google Scholar
  62. Johannes, R.E. (1981) Working with fishermen to improve coastal tropical fisheries and resource management. Bull. mar. Sci. 31, 673–80.Google Scholar
  63. Johannes, R.E. (1988) The spawning aggregation of the grouper Plectropomus areolatus (Ruppell), in the Solomon Islands. Proc. 6th int. Coral Reef Symp., Townsville (8–12 August 1988) 2, 751–6.Google Scholar
  64. Jones, G.P. (1986) Food availability affects growth in a coral reef fish. Oecologia 70, 136–9.Google Scholar
  65. Jones, G.P. (1987) Competitive interactions among adults and juveniles in a coral reef fish. Ecology 68, 1534–47.Google Scholar
  66. Kelleher, G. and Kenchington, R.A. (1982) Australia's Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: making development compatible with conservation. Ambio 11, 262–7.Google Scholar
  67. Kikkawa, J. (1986) Complexity, diversity and stability. In Kikkawa, J. and Anderson, D.J., eds. Community Ecology: Pattern and Process. Melbourne: Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 41–62.Google Scholar
  68. Kobayashi, D.R. (1989) Fine-scale distribution of larval fishes: patterns and processes adjacent to coral reefs in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Mar. Biol. 100, 285–93.Google Scholar
  69. Koslow, J.A., Hanley, F. and Wicklund, R. (1988) Effects of fishing on reef fish communities at Pedro Bank and Port Royal Cays, Jamaica. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 43, 201–12.Google Scholar
  70. Lassig, B.R. (1983) The effect of a cyclonic storm on coral reef fish assemblages. Env. Biol. Fishes 9, 55–64.Google Scholar
  71. Leis, J.M. (1988) The pelagic phase of coral reef fishes. Abstracts 6th int. Coral Reef Symp., 8–12 August 1988. Townsville, Australia: James Cook University of North Queensland. p. 61.Google Scholar
  72. Leis, J.M. and Goldman, B. (1987) Composition and distribution of larval fish assemblages in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, near Lizard Island, Australia. Aust. J. mar. freshwat. Res. 38, 211–23.Google Scholar
  73. Lessios, H.A. (1988) Mass mortality of Diadema antillarum in the Caribbean: what have we learned? A. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 19, 371–93.Google Scholar
  74. Lobel, P.S. and Robinson, A.R. (1986) Transport and entrapment of fish larvae by ocean mesoscale eddies and currents in Hawaiian waters. Deep-Sea Res. 33, 483–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lock, J.M. (1986) Effects of Fishing Pressure on the Fish Resources of the Port Moresby Barrier and Fringing Reefs. Tech. Rep. 86/3, Dept of Primary Industry, Fish. Div., Port Moresby. 31 pp.Google Scholar
  76. McClanahan, T.R. (1988) Coexistence in a sea urchin guild and its implications to coral reef diversity and degradation. Oecologia, 77, 210–18.Google Scholar
  77. McClanahan, T.R. and Muthiga, N.A. (1988) Changes in Kenyan coral reef community structure and function due to exploitation. Hydrobiologia 166, 269–76.Google Scholar
  78. McClanahan, T.R. and Shafir, S.H. (1990) Causes and consequences of sea urchin abundance and diversity in Kenyan coral reef lagoons. Oecologia 83, 362–70.Google Scholar
  79. McFarland, W.N. (1979) Observations on recruitment in haemulid fishes. Proc. Gulf Caribb. Fish. Inst. Univ. Miami 32, 132–8.Google Scholar
  80. May, R.M. (1981) Patterns in multi-species communities. In May, R.M., ed. Theoretical Ecology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 197–227.Google Scholar
  81. Messiha-Hanna, R. and Ormond, R.F.G. (1982) Oil pollution, urchin erosion and coral reef deterioration in the Egyptian Red Sea. Iraqi J. mar. Sci. 1, 35–57.Google Scholar
  82. Moran, P.J. (1986) The Acanthaster phenomenon. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 24, 379–480.Google Scholar
  83. Munro, J.L. (ed.) (1983) Caribbean Coral Reef Fishery Resources. Manila: ICLARM. 276 pp.Google Scholar
  84. Munro, J.L. and Williams, D.McB. (1985) Assessment and management of coral reef fisheries: biological, environmental and socioeconomic aspects. Proc. 5th int. Coral Reef Cong., Tahiti (27 May–6 June 1985) 4, 545–81.Google Scholar
  85. Myrberg, A.A., Montgomery, W.L. and Fishelson, L. (1988) The reproductive behaviour of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskal) and other surgeonfishes (fam Acanthuridae) off Eilat, Israel (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea). Ethology 79, 31–61.Google Scholar
  86. Norte, A.G.C. del, Nanola, C.L., McManus, J.W., Reyes, R.B., Campos, W.L. and Cabansag, J.B.P. (1989) Overfishing on a Philippine coral reef: a glimpse into the future. In Magoon, O.T., Converse, H., Miner, D., Tobin, L.T. and Clark, D., eds. Coastal Zone '89: Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management, Charleston 11–14 July 1989. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 3087–97.Google Scholar
  87. Ogden, J.C. and Ehrlich, P.R. (1977) The behavior of Heterotypic resting schools of juvenile grunts (Pomadasyidae). Mar. Biol. 42, 273–80.Google Scholar
  88. Ogden, J.C. and Lobel, P.S. (1978) The role of herbivorous fishes and urchins in coral reef communities. Env. Biol. Fishes 3, 49–63.Google Scholar
  89. Ogden, J.C. and Quinn, T.P. (1984) Migration in coral reef fishes: ecological significance and orientation mechanisms. In McLeave, J.D., Arnold, G.P., Dodson, J.J. and Neill, W.H., eds. Mechanisms of Migration in Fishes. New York: Plenum, pp. 293–308.Google Scholar
  90. Ormond, R.F.G., Bradbury, R., Bainbridge, S., Fabricius, K., Keesing, J., DeVantier, L., Medley, P. and Steven, A. (1991) Test of a model of regulation of Crown-of-Thorns starfish by fish predators. In Bradbury, R., ed. Acanthaster and the Coral Reef: a Theoretical Perspective. Berlin: Springer-Verlag (in press).Google Scholar
  91. Paine, R.T. (1966) Food web complexity and species diversity. Am. Nat. 100, 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Parker, G.A. (1984) Evolutionarily stable strategies. In Krebs, J.R. and Davies, N.B., eds. Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach, Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 30–61.Google Scholar
  93. Peters, R.H. (1983) The Ecological Implications of Body Size. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. 329 pp.Google Scholar
  94. Pitcher, T.J. and Hart, P.J.B. (1982) Fisheries Ecology, London: Croom Helm. 414 pp.Google Scholar
  95. Polovina, J.J. (1986) A variable catchability version of the Leslie model with application to an intensive fishing experiment on a multispecies stock. Fish. Bull. USA 84, 423–8.Google Scholar
  96. Polunin, N.V.C. (1990) Marine regulated areas: an expanded approach for the tropics. Resource Manage. Optimiz. 7, 283–99.Google Scholar
  97. Polunin, N.V.C. and Klumpp, D.W. (1991) A trophodynamic model of fish production on a windward reef flat. In John, D.M. and Price, J.M., eds Plant-Animal Interactions in the Marine Benthos (Systematics Ass. Special Vol.). Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press (in press).Google Scholar
  98. Quinn, N.J. and Kojis, B.J. (1985) Does the presence of coral reefs in proximity to a tropical estuary affect the estuarine fish assemblage? Proc. 5th int. Coral Reef Cong., Tahiti (27 May–6 June 1985) 5, 445–50.Google Scholar
  99. Quinn, T.P. and Ogden, J.C. (1984) Field evidence of compass orientation in migrating juvenile grunts (Haemulidae). J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 81, 181–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Reese, E.S. (1973) Duration of residence by coral reef fishes on “home” reefs. Copeia 1973, 145–9.Google Scholar
  101. Richards, W.J. and Lindeman, K.C. (1987) Recruitment dynamics of reef fishes: planktonic processes, settlement and demersal ecologies, and fishery analysis. Bull. mar. Sci. 41, 392–410.Google Scholar
  102. Ricker, W.E. (1954) Stock and recruitment. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 11, 555–623.Google Scholar
  103. Ricker, W.E. (1981) Changes in the average size and average age of Pacific salmon. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 38, 1636–56.Google Scholar
  104. Roberts, C.M. and Ormond, R.F.G. (1991) Butterflyfish social behaviour with special reference to the incidence of territorality: a review. Env. Biol. Fish (in press).Google Scholar
  105. Robertson, D.R. (1983) On the spawning behavior and spawning cycles of eight surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae) from the Indo-Pacific. Env. Biol. Fishes 9, 193–223.Google Scholar
  106. Robertson, D.R. (1988) Settlement and population dynamics of Abudefduf saxatilis on patch reefs in Caribean Panama. Proc. 6th Int. Coral Reef Symp., Townsville (8–12 August 1988) 2, 839–44.Google Scholar
  107. Russ, G. (1985) Effects of protective management on coral reef fishes in the central Philippines. Proc 5th int. Coral Reef Cong., Tahiti (27 May–1 June 1985) 4, 219–24.Google Scholar
  108. Russ, G. and Alcala, A.C. (1989) Effects of intense fishing pressure on an assemblage of coral reef fishes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 56, 13–27.Google Scholar
  109. Rutherford, E.S., Tilmant, J.T., Thue, E.B. and Schmidt, T.W. (1989) Fishery harvest and population dynamics of gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus, in Florida Bay and adjacent waters. Bull. mar. Sci. 44, 139–54.Google Scholar
  110. Sale, P.F. (1978) Reef fishes and other vertebrates: a comparison of social structures. In Reese, E.S. and Lighter, F.J., eds. Contrasts in Behavior. Adaptations in the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments, New York: Wiley, pp. 313–46.Google Scholar
  111. Sale, P.F. (1980) The ecology of fishes on coral reefs. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 18, 367–421.Google Scholar
  112. Sale, P.F. and Ferrell, D.J. (1988) Early survivorship of juvenile coral reef fishes. Coral Reefs 7, 117–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sale, P.F., Doherty, P.J., Eckert, G.J., Douglas, W.A. and Ferrell, D.J. (1984) Large scale spatial and temporal variation in recruitment to fish populations on coral reefs. Oecologia 64, 191–8.Google Scholar
  114. Samoilys, M. (1988) Abundance and species richness of coral reef fish on the Kenyan coast: the effects of protective management and fishing. Proc. 6th int. Coral Reef Symp., Townsville (8–12 August 1988) 2, 261–6.Google Scholar
  115. Sano, M., Shimizu, M. and Nose, Y. (1987) Long-term effects of destruction of hermatypic corals by Acanthaster planci infestation on reef fish communities at Iriomote Island, Japan. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 37, 191–9.Google Scholar
  116. Schroeder, R.E. (1987) Effects of patch reef size and isolation on coral reef fish recruitment. Bull. mar., Sci. 41, 441–51.Google Scholar
  117. Shapiro, D.Y. (1987) Reproduction in groupers. In Polovina, J.J. and Ralston, S., eds. Tropical Snappers and Groupers: Biology and Fisheries Management. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 295–327.Google Scholar
  118. Shulman, M.J. (1984) Resource limitation and recruitment patterns in a coral reef fish assemblage. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 74, 85–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Shulman, M.J. (1985) Recruitment of coral reef fishes: effects of distribution of predators and shelter. Ecology 66, 1056–66.Google Scholar
  120. Shulman, M.J. and Ogden, J.C. (1987) What controls tropical reef fish populations: recruitment or benthic mortality? An example in the Caribbean reef fish Haemulon flavolineatum. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 39, 233–42.Google Scholar
  121. Smale, M.J. (1988) Distribution and reproduction of the reef fish Petrus rupestris (Pisces: Sparidae) off the coast of South Africa. S. Afr. J. Zool. 23, 272–87.Google Scholar
  122. Sparre, P., Ursin, E. and Venema, S.C. (1989) Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment. Part 1-manual. FAO Fisheries Tech. Pap. 306/1. 337 pp.Google Scholar
  123. Sweatman, H.P.A. (1985a) The influence of adults of some coral reef fishes on larval recruitment. Ecol. Monogr. 55, 469–85.Google Scholar
  124. Sweatman, H.P.A. (1985b) The timing of settlement by larval Dascyllus aruanus: some consequences for larval habitat selection. Proc. 6th int. Coral Reef Cong., Tahiti (27 May–6 June 1985) 5, 367–71.Google Scholar
  125. Sweatman, H.P.A. (1988) Field evidence that settling coral reef fish larvae detect resident fishes using dissolved chemical cues. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 124, 163–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Thresher, R.E. (1983) Habitat effects on reproductive success in the coral reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus (Pomacentridae). Ecology 64, 1184–99.Google Scholar
  127. Thresher, R.E. (1984) Reproduction in Reef Fishes. Neptune City, USA: T.F.H. Publications. 399 pp.Google Scholar
  128. UNEP/IUCN (1988a) Coral Reefs of the World. Vol. 1. Atlantic and Eastern Pacific. Cambridge: IUCN, Nairobi: UNEP. 373 pp.Google Scholar
  129. UNEP/IUCN (1988b) Coral Reefs of the World. Vol. 2. Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Gulf. Cambridge: IUCN, Nairobi: UNEP. 389 pp.Google Scholar
  130. UNEP/IUCN (1988c) Coral Reefs of the World. Vol. 3. Central and Western Pacific. Cambridge: IUCN, Nairobi: UNEP. 329 pp.Google Scholar
  131. Victor, B.C. (1983) Recruitment and population dynamics of a coral reef fish. Science 219, 419–20.Google Scholar
  132. Walker, D. (1989) Diversity and stability. In Cherrett, J.M., ed. Ecological Concepts: The Contribution of Ecology to an Understanding of the Natural World. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 115–45.Google Scholar
  133. Wallis, O.L. (1971) Establishing underwater parks worldwide. Trans. North Am. Wildl. nat. Resour. Conf. 36, 97–115.Google Scholar
  134. Walsh, W.J. (1983) Stability of a coral reef fish community following a catastrophic storm. Coral Reefs 2, 49–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wellington, G.M. and Victor, B.C. (1985) El Niño mass coral mortality: a test of resource limitation in a coral reef damselfish population. Oecologia 68, 15–19.Google Scholar
  136. Wellington, G.M. and Victor, B.C. (1989) Planktonic larval duration of one hundred species of Pacific and Atlantic damselfishes (Pomacentridae). Mar. Biol. 101, 557–67.Google Scholar
  137. White, A.T. (1986) Philippine marine park pilot site: benefits and management conflicts. Env. Conserv. 13, 355–9.Google Scholar
  138. Williams, D.McB. (1980) Dynamics of the pomacentrid community on small patch reefs in One Tree lagoon (Great Barrier Reef). Bull. mar. Sci. 30, 159–70.Google Scholar
  139. Williams, D.McB. (1986) Temporal variation in the structure of reef slope fish communities (central Great Barrier Reef): short-term effects of Acanthaster planci infestation. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 28, 157–64.Google Scholar
  140. Williams, D.McB. (1991) Patterns and processes in the distribution of coral reef fishes. In Sale, P.F., ed. Ecology of Coral Reef Fishes. New York: Academic Press (in press)Google Scholar
  141. Williams, D.McB., Wolanski, E. and Andrews, J.C. (1984) Transport mechanisms and the potential movement of planktonic larvae in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 3, 229–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wootton, R.J. (1990) Ecology of Teleost Fishes. London: Chapman and Hall. 404 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Callum M. Roberts
    • 1
  • Nicholas V. C. Polunin
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Tropical Coastal Management Studies, Dept of BiologyThe UniversityNewcastle-upon-TyneUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations