, Volume 56, Issue 3, pp 269–285 | Cite as

Application of cell and tissue culture and in vitro selection for disease resistance breeding — a review

  • R. W. van den Bulk


Somaclonal variation, i.e. the variation induced by cell and tissue culture, offers an opportunity to broaden the genetic variation of crops. As a result of somaclonal variation a wide range of plant characteristics can be altered. However, the selection of agronomically important traits, e.g. disease resistance, has many limitations. The efficiency of selection can be increased by the application of in vitro selection procedures. Selection strategies that may be applied to obtain disease resistant somaclonal variants are described. Their merits and limitations, in relation to the efficiency of the procedures, the frequency of disease resistant variants and the genetics of the resistance obtained, are discussed.

Key words

disease resistance in vitro selection somaclonal variation tissue culture 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahloowalia, B.S., 1986. Limitations to the use of somaclonal variation in crop improvement. In: J., Semal (Ed.), Somaclonal variations and crop improvement, pp. 14–27. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  2. Apostol, I., P.S., Low & P., Heinstein, 1989. Effect of age of cell suspension cultures on susceptibility to a fungal elicitor. Plant Cell Rep. 7: 692–695.Google Scholar
  3. Arcioni, S., M., Pezzotti & F., Damiani, 1987. In vitro selection of alfalfa plants resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. medicaginis. Theor. Appl. Genet. 74: 700–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barden, K.A., S., Schiller Smith & H.H., Murakishi, 1986. Regeneration and screening of tomato somaclones for resistance to tobacco mosaic virus. Plant Science 45: 209–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Behnke, M., 1979. Selection of potato callus for resistance to culture filtrates of Phytophthora infestans and regeneration of resistant plants. Theor. Appl. Genet. 55: 69–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Behnke, M., 1980a. General resistance to late blight of Solanum tuberosum plants regenerated from callus resistant to culture filtrates of Phytophthora infestans. Theor. Appl. Genet. 56: 151–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Behnke, M., 1980b. Selection of dihaploid potato callus for resistance to the culture filtrate of Fusarium oxysporum. Z. Pflanzenzüchtg. 85: 254–258.Google Scholar
  8. Binarová, P., J., Nedelnik, M., Fellner & B., Nedbálková, 1990. Selection for resistance to filtrates of Fusarium spp. in embryogenic cell suspension culture of Medicago sativa L. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 22: 191–196.Google Scholar
  9. Bino, R.J., J., Franken, H.M.A., Witsenboer, J., Hille & J.J.M., Dons, 1988. Effects of Alternaria alternata f.sp. lycopersici toxins on pollen. Theor. Appl. Genet. 76: 204–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brettell, R.I.S., E., Thomas & D.S., Ingram, 1980. Reversion of Texas male-sterile cytoplasm maize in culture to give fertile, T-toxin resistant plants. Theor. Appl. Genet. 58: 55–58.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, C., J.A., Lucas, I.R., Crute, D.G.A., Walkey & J.B., Power, 1986. An assessment of genetic variability in somacloned lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa) and their offspring. Ann. Appl. Biol. 109: 391–407.Google Scholar
  12. Buiatti, M., C., Simeti, S., Vannini, G., Marcheschi, A., Scala, P., Bettini, P., Bogani & M.G., Pellegrini, 1987. Isolation of tomato cell lines with altered response to Fusarium cell wall components. Theor. Appl. Genet. 75: 37–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carlson, P.S., 1973. Methionine sulfoximine-resistant mutants of tobacco. Science 180: 1366–1368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cassells, A.C., M., Coleman, G., Farrell, R., Long, E.M., Goetz & V., Boyton, 1986. Screening for virus resistance in tissue culture adventitious regenerants and their progeny. In: W., Horn, C.J., Jensen, W., Odenbach & O., Schieder (Eds.), Genetic manipulation in plant breeding, pp. 535–545. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  15. Cassells, A.C., G. Farrell & M.C. Coleman, 1987. Somaclonal variation as a source of novel virus resistance in potato character improvement. Xth triennial Conf. Eur. Ass. Potato Res., Aalborg, Denmark, p. 104 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  16. Chappell, J., R., Nable, P., Fleming, R.A., Andersen & H.R., Burton, 1987. Accumulation of capsidiol in tobacco cell cultures treated with fungal elicitor. Phytochemistry 26: 2259–2260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chawla, H.S. & P.C. Kole, 1990. Variation for sugars, proteins, yield components and stability of resistance to Helminthosporium sativum in somaclonal generations of barley and wheat. VII Int. Congr. of Plant Tissue and Cell Culture, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, p. 150 (Abstr.)Google Scholar
  18. Chawla, H.S. & G., Wenzel, 1987a. In vitro selection for fusaric acid resistant barley plants. Plant Breeding 99: 159–163.Google Scholar
  19. Chawla, H.S. & G., Wenzel, 1987b. In vitro selection of barley and wheat for resistance against Helminthosporium sativum. Theor. Appl. Genet. 74: 841–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Connell, S.A. & J.B. Heale, 1986. In vitro use of Verticillium alboatrum culture filtrates to select for disease resistance in regenerating callus cultures of hop (Humulus lupulus L.). In: Nuclear techniques and in vitro culture for plant improvement, pp. 309–313. Proc. IAEA/FAO symp. Vienna, august 1985.Google Scholar
  21. Connel, S.A. & J.B., Heale, 1987. Use of tissue culture to produce novel sources of resistance to Verticillium albo-atrum attacking hop. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 9: 81 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  22. Daub, M.E., 1984. A cell culture approach for the development of disease resistance: studies on the phytotoxin cercosporin. HortScience 19: 382–387.Google Scholar
  23. Daub, M.E., 1986. Tissue culture and the selection of resistance to pathogens. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 24: 159–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daub, M.E. & A.E., Jenns, 1989. Field and greenhouse analysis of variation for disease resistance in tobacco somaclones. Phytopathology 79: 600–605.Google Scholar
  25. Davis, K.R. & K., Hahlbrock, 1987. Induction of defense responses in cultured parsley cells by plant cell wall fragments. Plant Physiol. 85: 1286–1290.Google Scholar
  26. Deaton, W.R., G.J., Keyes & G.B., Collins, 1982. Expressed resistance to black shank among tobacco callus cultures. Theor. Appl. Genet. 63: 65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Earle, E.D., 1982. Cytoplasm-specific effects of Helminthosporium maydis race T toxin on corn protoplasts and mitochondria. In: E.D., Earle & Y., Demarly (Eds.), Variability in plants regenerated from tissue culture, pp. 351–367. Praeger Publ., New York.Google Scholar
  28. Evans, N.E., D., Foulger, L., Farrer & S.W., Bright, 1986. Somaclonal variation in explant-derived potato clones over three tuber generations. Euphytica 35: 353–361.Google Scholar
  29. Evans, D.A., 1987. Somaclonal variation. In: D.J., Nevins & R.A., Jones (Eds.), Tomato Biotechnology, pp. 59–69. Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Evans, D.A., 1989. Somaclonal variation — genetic basis and breeding applications. Trends in Genetics 5: 46–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gavazzi, G., C., Tonelli, G., Todesco, E., Arreghini, F., Raffaldi, F., Vecchio, G., Barbuzzi, M.G., Biasini & F., Sala, 1987. Somaclonal variation versus chemically induced mutagenesis in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 74: 733–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gendloff, E.H., R.P., Scheffer & S.C., Somerville, 1987. An improved bioassay for victorin based on the use of oat protoplasts. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 31: 421–427.Google Scholar
  33. Gengenbach, B.G., C.E., Green & C.M., Donovan, 1977. Inheritance of selected pathotoxin resistance in maize plants regenerated from cell cultures. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 74: 5113–5117.Google Scholar
  34. Godwin, I.D., D.F., Cameron & G.H., Gordon, 1990. Variation among somaclonal progenies from three species of Stylosanthes. Austr. J. Agric. Res. 41: 645–656.Google Scholar
  35. Goodman, R.N., Z., Király & K.R., Wood, 1986. The biochemistry and physiology of plant disease. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, USA, 433 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Hammerschlag, F.A., 1984. Optical evidence for an effect of culture filtrates of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni on peach mesophyll membranes. Plant Sci. Lett. 34: 295–304.Google Scholar
  37. Hammerschlag, F.A., 1988. Selection of peach cells for insensitivity to culture filtrates of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni and regeneration of resistant plants. Theor. Appl. Genet. 76: 865–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hammerschlag, F.A., 1990a. Resistance responses of plants regenerated from peach callus cultures to Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 115: 1034–1037.Google Scholar
  39. Hammerschlag, F.A., 1990b. Phenotypic stability of bacterial leaf spot and bacterial canker resistance in peach regenerants. VII Int. Congr. of Plant Tissue and Cell Culture, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, p. 155 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  40. Hammerschlag, F.A. & V., Ognjanov, 1990. Somaclonal variation in peach: screening for resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Acta Hort. 280: 403–408.Google Scholar
  41. Hartman, C.L., T.J., McCoy & T.R., Knous, 1984. Selection of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cell lines and regeneration of plants resistant to the toxin(s) produced by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. medicaginis. Plant Sci. Lett. 34: 183–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Heath-Pagliuso, S., J., Pullman & L., Rappaport, 1988. Somaclonal variation in celery: screening for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. apii. Theor. Appl. Genet. 75: 446–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Heath-Pagliuso, S., J., Pullman & L., Rappaport, 1989. ‘UC-T3 somaclone’: celery germplasm resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. apii, race 2. Hort Science 24: 711–712.Google Scholar
  44. Heath-Pagliuso, S. & L., Rappaport, 1990. Somaclonal variant UC-T3: the expression of Fusarium will resistance in progeny arrays of celery, Apium graveolens L. Theor. Appl. Genet. 80: 390–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Heinz, D.J., 1973. Sugar-cane improvement through induced mutations using vegetative propagules and cell culture techniques. In: Induced mutations in vegetatively propagatedGoogle Scholar
  46. Heinz, D.J., M., Krishnamurthi, L.G., Nickell & A., Maretzki, 1977. Cell, tissue and organ culture in sugarcane improvement. In: J., Reinert & Y.P.S., Bajaj (Eds.), Applied and fundamental aspects of plant cell, tissue and organ culture, pp. 3–17. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  47. Helgeson, J.P. & G.T., Haberlach 1980. Disease resistance studies with tissue cultures. In: D.S., Ingram & J.P., Helgeson (Eds.), Tissue culture methods for plant pathologists, pp. 179–184. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  48. Helgeson, J.P., G.T., Haberlach & C.D., Upper, 1976. A dominant gene conferring disease resistance to tobacco plants is expressed in tissue cultures. Phytopathology 66: 91–96.Google Scholar
  49. Hodgkin, T., 1990. In vitro pollen selection in Brassica napus L. for resistance to phytotoxic compounds from Alternaria brassicicola (Schw.) Wilts. Sex Plant Reprod. 3: 116–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hodgkin, T. & M.V., MacDonald, 1986. The effect of a phytotoxin from Alternaria brassicicola on brassica pollen. New Phytol. 104: 631–636.Google Scholar
  51. Hwang, S.C. & W.H. Ko, 1988. In vitro somaclonal variation in banana and its application for screening for resistance to fusarial wilt. Techn. Bull. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region no. 107,8 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Ireland, K.F. & M.L., Lacy, 1987. Greenhouse screening of celery somaclone progeny for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. apii race 2. Phytopathology 77: 1763 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  53. Ishida, Y. & T., Kumashiro, 1988. Expression of tolerance to the host-specific toxin of Alternaria alternata (AT toxin) in cultured cells and isolated protoplasts of tobacco. Plant Dis. 72: 892–895.Google Scholar
  54. Joung, H., S.S., Korban & R.M., Skirvin, 1987. Screening shoot cultures of Malus for Cedar-apple rust infection by in vitro inoculation. Plant Dis. 71: 1119–1122.Google Scholar
  55. Karp, A., 1989. Can genetic instability be controlled in plant tissue cultures? IAPTC Newslett. 58: 2–11.Google Scholar
  56. Karp, A. & S.W.J., Bright, 1985. On the causes and origins of somaclonal variation. In: B.J., Miflin (Ed.), Oxford Surveys of plant molecular and cell biology vol. 2, pp. 199–234. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  57. Krishnamurthi, M., 1974. Notes on disease resistance of tissue culture sub-clones and fusion of sugar cane protoplasts. Sugarcane Breeders Newslett. 35: 24–26.Google Scholar
  58. Krishnamurthi, M. & J., Tlaskal, 1974. Fiji disease resistant Saccharum officinarum var. Pindar sub-clones from tissue cultures. Proc. XV Congr. Int. Soc. Sugar Cane Techn. 1: 130–137.Google Scholar
  59. Kumashiro, T., 1983. Selection for tenuazonic acid tolerant cells of tobacco and characteristics of the regenerates. Jpn. J. Breeding 33 (Suppl. 1): 194–195.Google Scholar
  60. Larkin, P.J. & W.R., Scowcroft, 1981. Somaclonal variation — a novel source of variability from cell cultures for plant improvement. Theor. Appl. Genet. 60: 197–214.Google Scholar
  61. Larkin, P.J. & W.R., Scowcroft, 1983. Somaclonal variation and eyespot toxin tolerance in sugarcane. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 2: 111–121.Google Scholar
  62. Latunde-Dada, A.O. & J.A., Lucas, 1983. Somaclonal variation and reaction to Verticillium wilt in Medicago sativa L. plants regenerated from protoplasts. Plant Sci. Lett. 32: 205–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Latunde-Dada, A.O. & J.A., Lucas, 1985. Involvement of the phytoalexin medicarpin in the differential response of callus lines of lucerne (Medicago sativa) to infection by Verticillium albo-atrum. Physiol. Plant Pathol. 26: 31–42.Google Scholar
  64. Latunde-Dada, A.O. & J.A., Lucas, 1988. Somaclonal variation and resistance to Verticillium wilt in lucerne, Medicago sativa L., plants regenerated from callus. Plant Sci. 58: 111–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Laughnan, J.R. & S.J., Gabay, 1973. Reaction of germinating maize pollen to Helminthosporium maydis pathotoxins. Crop Sci. 13: 681–684.Google Scholar
  66. Lee, M. & R.L., Phillips, 1988. The chromosomal basis of somaclonal variation. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Mol. Biol. 39: 413–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ling, D.H., P., Vidhyaseharan, E.S., Borromeo, F.J., Zapata & T.W., Mew, 1985. In vitro screening of rice germplasm for resistance to brown spot disease using phytotoxin. Theor. Appl. Genet. 71: 133–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Liu, M.C., 1981. In vitro methods applied to sugar cane improvement. In: T.A., Thorpe (Ed.), Plant tissue culture: methods and applications in agriculture, pp. 299–323. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  69. Liu, M.C. & W.H. Chen, 1978. Significant improvement in sugarcane by using tissue culture methods. IV Int. Congr. of Plant Tissue and Cell Culture, Calgary, p. 1725 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  70. Lörz, H. & P.T.H., Brown, 1986. Variability in tissue culture derived plants-possible origins; advantages and drawbacks. In: W., Horn, C.J., Jensen, W., Odenbach & O., Schieder (Eds.), Genetic manipulation in plant breeding, pp. 513–534. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  71. MacDonald, M.V. & D.S., Ingram, 1985. In vitro selection for resistance to Alternaria brassicicola in Brassica napus ssp. oleifera (winter oilseed rape) using partially purified culture filtrates. Cruc. Newslett. 10: 97–100.Google Scholar
  72. MacDonald, M.V. & D.S., Ingram, 1986. Towards the selection in vitro for resistance to Alternaria brassicicola (Schw.) Wilts, in Brassica napus ssp. oleifera(Metzg.) Sinsk., winter oilseed rape. New Phytol. 104: 621–629.Google Scholar
  73. Mascarenhas, J.P., J.R., Stinson, R.P., Willing & M.E., Pe, 1985. Genes and their expression in the male gametophyte of flowering plants. In: D.L., Mulcahy, G., Bergamini-Mulcahy & O., Ottaviano (Eds.), Biotechnology and ecology of pollen, pp. 39–44. Springer Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  74. Matern, U., G., Strobel & J., Shepard, 1978. Reaction to phytotoxins in a population derived from mesophyll protoplasts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 75: 4935–4939.Google Scholar
  75. McCoy, T.J., 1988, Tissue culture selection for disease resistant plants. Iowa State J. Res. 62: 503–521.Google Scholar
  76. Meins, F., 1983. Heritable variation in plant cell culture. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 34: 327–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Meulemans, M. & G., Fouarge, 1986. Regeneration of potato somaclones and in vitro selection for resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Med. Fac. Landbouww. Rijksuniv. Gent 51: 533–545.Google Scholar
  78. Meulemans, M., D., Duchene, P., Tegera & G., Fouarge, 1986. In: J., Semal (Ed.), Somaclonal variation and crop improvement, pp. 219–223. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  79. Miller, S.A., L.C., Davidse & D.P., Maxwell, 1984. Expression of genetic susceptibility, host resistance and nonhost resistance in alfalfa callus tissue inoculated with Phytophthora megasperma. Phytopathology 74: 345–348.Google Scholar
  80. Miller, S.A., G.R., Williams, H., Medina-Filho & D.A., Evans, 1985. A somaclonal variant of tomato resistant to race 2 of Fusarium oxysporum. Phytopathology 75: 1354 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  81. Mitra, D.K. & N., Gupta, 1989. Somaclonal variant for tolerance to little leaf disease of eggplant (Solanum melongena) regenerated from tissue culture of infected plants. New Botanist 16: 291–292.Google Scholar
  82. Moser, H.S., G.A., Smith & S.S., Martin, 1990. Sporophytic and gametophytic responses of sugarbeet to two pathotoxins. Crop Sci. 30: 1–6.Google Scholar
  83. Murakishi, H.H. & P.S., Carlson, 1982. In vitro selection of Nicotiana sylvestris variants with limited resistance to TMV. Plant Cell Rep. 1: 94–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nachmias, A., J., Orenstein, M., Tal & M., Goren, 1990. Reactions to a Verticillium dahliae phytotoxin in tissue cultures derived from susceptible and tolerant potato. Plant Sci. 68: 123–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Newsholme, D.M., M.V., MacDonald & D.S., Ingram, 1989. Studies of selection in vitro for novel resistance to phytotoxic products of Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. & De Not. in secondary embryogenic lines of Brassica napus ssp. oleifera (Metzg.) Sinsk., winter oilseed rape. New Phytol. 113: 117–126.Google Scholar
  86. Ostry, M.E. & D.D., Skilling, 1988. Somatic variation in resistance of Populus to Septoria musiva. Plant Dis. 72: 724–727.Google Scholar
  87. Parker, J.E., K., Hahlbrock & D., Scheel, 1988. Different cellwall components from Phytophthora f.sp. glycinea elicit phytoalexin production in soybean and parsley. Planta 176: 75–82.Google Scholar
  88. Pauly, M.H., W.W., Shane & B.G., Gengenbach, 1987. Selection for bacterial blight phytotoxin resistance in wheat tissue culture. Crop Sci. 27: 340–344.Google Scholar
  89. Pelcher, L.E., K.N., Kao, O.L., Gamborg, O.C., Yoder & V.E., Gracen, 1975. Effects of Helminthosporium maydis race T toxin on protoplasts of resistant and susceptible corn (Zea mays). Can. J. Bot. 53: 427–431.Google Scholar
  90. Phillips, R.L., S.M., Kaeppler & V.M., Peschke, 1990. Do we understand somaclonal variation? In: H.J.J., Nijkamp, L.H.W., van der, Plas & J., van, Aartrijk (Eds.), Progress in plant cellular and molecular biology, pp. 131–141. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  91. Pickering, R.A., 1989. Plant regeneration and variants from calli derived from immature embryos of diploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and H. vulgare L. × H. bulbosum L. crosses. Theor. Appl. Genet. 78: 105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Prakash, C.S. & B.A., Thielges, 1989. Somaclonal variation in Eastern cottonwood for race-specific partial resistance to leaf rust disease. Phytopathology 79: 805–808.Google Scholar
  93. Reisch, B., 1983. Genetic variability in regenerated plants. In: D.A., Evans, W.R., Sharp, P.V., Ammirato & Y., Yamada, (Eds.), Handbook of plant cell culture vol. 1, pp. 748–769. MacMillan Publ., New York.Google Scholar
  94. Rines, H.W. & H.H., Luke, 1985. Selection and regeneration of toxin-insensitive plants from tissue cultures of oats (Avena sativa) susceptible to Helminthosporium victoriae. Theor. Appl. Genet. 71: 16–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rosati, P., B., Mezzetti, M., Ancherani, S., Foscolo, S., Predieri & F., Fasolo, 1990. In vitro selection of apple rootstock somaclones with Phytophthora cactorum culture filtrate. Acta Hort 280: 409–416.Google Scholar
  96. Rotino, G.L., A., Falavigna & F., Restaino 1987. In vitro selection of eggplant cells resistant to culture filtrate of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. and regeneration of plants. Capsicum Newslett. 6: 94–95.Google Scholar
  97. Rotino, G.L., M. Schiavi, F. Restaino & A. Falavigna, 1990. In vitro selection of eggplant for resistance to Verticillium dahliae Kleb. VII Int. Congr. of Plant Tissue and Cell Culture, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, p. 164 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  98. Sacristán, M.D., 1982. Resistance responses to Phoma lingam of plants regenerated from selected cell and embryogenic cultures of haploid Brassica napus. Theor. Appl. Genet. 61: 193–200.Google Scholar
  99. Sacristán, M.D., 1985. Selection for disease resistance in Brassica cultures. Hereditas Suppl. 3: 57–63.Google Scholar
  100. Sacristán, M.D. & F., Hoffmann, 1979. Direct infection of embryogenic tissue cultures of haploid Brassica napus with resting spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae. Theor. Appl. Genet. 54: 129–132.Google Scholar
  101. Scala, A., P., Bettini, M., Buiatti, P., Bogani, G., Pellegrini & F., Tognoni, 1984. In vitro analysis of the tomato-Fusarium oxysporum system and selection experiments. In: F.J., Novák, L., Havel & J., Dolezel (Eds.), Plant tissue and cell culture applications to crop improvement, pp. 361–362. Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague.Google Scholar
  102. Scala, A., P., Bettini, M., Buiatti, P., Bogani, G., Pellegrini & F., Tognoni, 1985. Tomato-Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici interaction: ‘in vitro’ analysis of several possible pathogenic factors. Phytopath. Z. 113: 90–94.Google Scholar
  103. Scowcroft, W.R., P.J., Larkin & R.I.S., Brettell, 1983. Genetic variation from tissue culture. In: J.P., Helgeson & B.J., Deverall (Eds.), Use of tissue culture and protoplasts in plant pathology, pp. 139–162. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  104. Selvapandiyan, A., A.R., Mehta & P.N., Bhatt, 1988. Cellular breeding approach for development of Fusarium wilt resistant tobacco. Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad. B54: 391–394.Google Scholar
  105. Shahin, E.A. & R., Spivey, 1986. A single dominant gene for Fusarium wilt resistance in protoplast-derived tomato plants. Theor. Appl. Genet. 73: 164–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Shahin, E.A. & R., Spivey, 1987. In vitro breeding for disease resistance in tomato. In: D.J., Nevins & R.A., Jones (Eds.), Tomato Biotechnology, pp. 89–97. Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  107. Shepard, J.F., D., Bidney & E., Shahin, 1980. Potato protoplasts in crop improvement. Science 208: 17–24.Google Scholar
  108. Sjödin, C. & K., Glimelius, 1989a. Differences in response to the toxin sirodesmin PL produced by Phoma lingam (Tode ex Fr.) Desm. on protoplasts, cell aggregates and intact plants of resistant and susceptible Brassica accessions. Theor. Appl. Genet. 77: 76–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sjödin, C. & K., Glimelius, 1989b. Transfer of resistance against Phoma lingam to Brassica napus by asymmetric somatic hybridization combined with toxin selection. Theor. Appl. Genet. 78: 513–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Smith, S.L.S. & H.H., Murakishi, 1987. Inheritance of resistance to tomato mosaic virus (ToMV-0) in tomato somaclones. TGC Rep. 37: 65–66.Google Scholar
  111. Sreenivasan, J., T.V., Sreenivasan & K.C., Alexander, 1987. Somaclonal variation for rust resistance in sugarcane. Indian J. Genet. 47: 109–113.Google Scholar
  112. Storti, E., P., Bogani, P., Bettini, L., Bonzi Morassi, M.G., Pellegrini, M., Matteo, C., Simeti & M., Buiatti, 1989. The pleiotrophic phenotype of tomato cells selected for altered response to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici cell wall components. Theor. Appl. Genet. 78: 689–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Strobel, G.A., 1975. A mechanism of disease resistance in plants. Sci. Amer. 232: 80–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Sun, L.H., J.M., She & X.F., Lü, 1986. In vitro selection of Xanthomonas oryzae-resistant mutants in rice. I. Induction of resistant callus and screening regenerated plants. Acta Genetica Sinica 13: 188–193.Google Scholar
  115. Swanson, E.B., M.P., Coumans, G.L., Brown, J.D., Patel & W.D., Beversdorf, 1988. The characterization of herbicide tolerant plants in Brassica napus L. after in vitro selection of microspores and protopiasts. Plant Cell Rep. 7: 83–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Thanutong, P., I., Furusawa & M., Yamamoto, 1983. Resistant tobacco plants from protoplast-derived calluses selected for their resistance to Pseudomonas and Alternaria toxins. Theor. Appl. Genet. 66: 209–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Thomson, A.J., R.E., Gunn, G.J., Jellis, R.E., Boulton & C.N.D., Lacey, 1986. The evaluation of potato somaclones. In: J., Semal (Ed.), Somaclonal variations and crop improvement, pp. 236–243. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  118. Toyoda, H., Y., Oishi, Y., Matsuda, K., Chatani & T., Hirai, 1985. Resistance mechanism of cultured plant cells to tobacco mosaic virus. IV. Changes in tobacco mosaic virus concentrations in somaclonal tobacco callus tissues and production of virusfree plantlets. Phutopath. Z. 114: 126–133.Google Scholar
  119. Toyoda, H., K., Chatani, Y., Matsuda & S., Ouchi, 1989a. Multiplication of tobacco mosaic virus in tobacco callus tissues and in vitro selection for viral disease resistance. Plant Cell Rep. 8: 433–436.Google Scholar
  120. Toyoda, H., K., Shimizu, K., Chatani, N., Kita, Y., Matsuda & S., Ouchi, 1989b. Selection of bacterial wilt-resistant tomato through tissue culture. Plant Cell Rep. 8: 317–320.Google Scholar
  121. Umbeck, P.F. & B.G., Gengenbach, 1983. Reversion of malesterile T-cytoplasm maize to male fertility in tissue culture. Crop Sci. 23: 584–588.Google Scholar
  122. Van den, Bulk, R.W., E., Minke, W.H., Lindhout & H.J.M., Löffler, 1989a. No resistance to tomato mosaic virus found in somaclones of tomato. TGC Rep. 39: 7–8.Google Scholar
  123. Van den, Bulk, R.W., H.J.M., Löffler & J.J.M., Dons, 1989b. Effect of phytotoxic compounds produced by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on resistant and susceptible tomato plants. Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 95: 107–117.Google Scholar
  124. Van den, Bulk, R.W., H.J.M., Löffler, W.H., Lindhout & M., Koornneef, 1990a. Somaclonal variation in tomato: effect of explant source and a comparison with chemical mutagenesis. Theor. Appl. Genet. 80: 817–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Van den, Bulk, R.W., H.J.M., Löffler & J.J.M., Dons, 1990b. Inhibition of callus development from protoplasts of Lycopersicon peruvianum by extracellular polysaccharides of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Plant Sci. 71: 105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Van den Bulk, R.W., J. Jansen, W.H. Lindhout & H.J.M. Löffler, 1991. Screening of tomato somaclones for resistance to bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis). Plant Breeding (in press).Google Scholar
  127. Vardi, A., E., Epstein & A., Breiman, 1986. Is the Phytophthora citrophthora culture filtrate a reliable tool for the in vitro selection of resistant Citrus variants? Theor. Appl. Genet. 72: 569–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Vidhyasekaran, P., D.H., Ling, E.S., Borromeo, F.J., Zapata & T.W., Mew, 1990. Selection of brown spot-resistant rice plants from Helminthosporium oryzae toxin-resistant calluses. Ann. Appl. Biol. 117: 515–523.Google Scholar
  129. Wenzel, G. & B., Foroughi-Wehr, 1990. Progeny tests of barley, wheat, and potato regenerated from cell cultures after in vitro selection for disease resistance. Theor. Appl. Genet. 80: 359–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wenzel, G., F., Köhler,R., Schuchmann & B., Forough-Wehr, 1984. Selection in vitro for resistances. In: W., Lange, A.C. Zeven & N.G., Hogenboom (Eds.), Efficiency in plant breeding, pp. 224–227. Proc. Xth EUCARPIA congress, june 1983, Wageningen, the Netherlands, Pudoc Wageningen.Google Scholar
  131. Witsenboer, H.M.A., C.E., van, Schaik, R.J., Bino, H.J.M., Löffler, H.J.J., Nijkamp & J., Hille, 1988. Effects of Alternaria alternata f.sp. lycopersici toxins at different levels of tomato plant cell development. Plant Sci. 56: 253–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wolf, S.J. & E.D., Earle, 1990. Inhibition of corn callus growth by Helminthosporium carbonum race 1 toxin. Crop Sci. 30: 728–734.Google Scholar
  133. Wright, J.C. & M.L., Lacy, 1988. Increase of disease resistance in celery cultivars by regeneration of whole plants from cell suspension cultures. Plant Dis. 72: 256–259.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. W. van den Bulk
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research (CPRO-DLO)WageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations