Advertisement

Euphytica

, Volume 43, Issue 1–2, pp 1–6 | Cite as

Cytological mechanism of 2n pollen formation and unilateral sexual polyploidization in Lolium

  • C. A. Sala
  • E. L. Camadro
  • M. T. Salaberry
  • A. O. Mendiburu
Article

Summary

Plants of Lolium perenne, L. multiflorum and L. hybridum (331, 51 and 18, respectively) were screened for 2n pollen production. The screening was based on the size differences that are expected to be found between n and 2n pollen of a plant. It was found that 28 plants of perennial ryegrass-belonging to 13 cultivars-produced produced pollen grains of heterogenous size (big and small). The estimated frequency of big pollen grain production was higher than 10% in ten out of 28 plants and in three of them it reached a value of 100%. Eight plants obtained from two 4x × 2x crosses, in which the male parent had been previously identified as producing pollen grains of heterogenous size, was tetraploid. The cytological mechanism of big pollen grain formation observed in three plants consists in the lack of spindle formation and, consequently, of chromosome migration in anaphase II. From these breeding and cytological results, it was concluded that the big pollen grains observed were viable 2n pollen grains. The nuclei of the 2n pollen grains produced by this mechanism are genetically equivalent to those formed by the restitution of the second meiotic division. The value of these gametophytes in a breeding program of Lolium is discussed.

Key words

Lolium ryegrass 2n gametes sexual polyploidization 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander M.P., 1969. Differential staining of aborted and non-aborted pollen. Stain Technol. 44: 117–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander M.P., 1980. A versatile stain for pollen, fungi, yeast and bacteria. Stain Technol. 55: 13–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahloowalia B.S., 1965. A root-tip squash technique for screening chromosome number in Lolium, Euphytica 14: 170–172.Google Scholar
  4. Ahloowalia B.S., 1967. Colchicine induced polyploids in ryegrass. Euphytica 16: 49–60.Google Scholar
  5. Ahloowalia B.S., 1968. Technique for studying meiosis in ryegrass. In: Effects of radiation on meiotic systems. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  6. Ahloowalia B.S., 1971. Performance of diploid varieties and their tetraploid progenies in perennial rye. Ir. J. Agric. Res. 10: 330–340.Google Scholar
  7. Ahloowalia, B.S., 1977. Breaking the yield and quality barriers in forage productivity of ryegrass. In: Proceedings International Meeting on Animal Production from Temperate Grasslands. Dublin, Ireland.Google Scholar
  8. Armstrong C.S., 1981. ‘Grassland Moata’ tetraploid italian ryegrass. New Z. J. Exper. Agric. 32: 33–40.Google Scholar
  9. Breese E.L. & E.J. Lewis, 1984. Breeding versatile hybrid grasses. Span 27: 1.Google Scholar
  10. Camadro, E.L., 1981. Mode of origin and evolution of wild polyploid Solanums and the development of internal barriers to hybridization. PhD. Thesis. Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  11. Camadro E.L., 1986. Los gametos 2n en el origen y la evolución de las Angiospermas poliploides. Mendeliana 7(2): 85–100.Google Scholar
  12. Carlier, L.A. & A.P. Andries. La valeur alimentaire du raygrass d'Italie et du ryegrass hybride. Revue de L'Agriculture 33: 1021–1030.Google Scholar
  13. Delgado E.I., 1980. Caracteres fisiológicos y agronómicos del raygrass westerwold en el Valle Medio del Hebro. An. Inst. Invest. Agr. Prod. Veg. 12: 37–51.Google Scholar
  14. Dijkstra J. & A.L.F. de Vos, 1975. Meiotic doubling of chromosome number in Festulolium. Euphytica 24(3): 743–749.Google Scholar
  15. Doherty M.A. & J.D. Dodson, 1980. The reaction of italian ryegrass to ryegrass mosaic virus. J. Nat. Inst. Agric. Bot. 15: 226–268.Google Scholar
  16. Essad S., 1957. La polyploidie et ses aspects évolutifs en relation avec l'amélioration des plantes. Ann. Amélior. Plantes 7: 199–226.Google Scholar
  17. Essad, S., 1962. Etude génétique et cytogénétique des espèces Lolium perenne L., Festuca pratensis Huds et de leurs hybrids. Ann. Amélior. Plantes. 12 No. Hors. sér., 103 p.Google Scholar
  18. Faulkner S.S., 1975. The performance of seven early perennial ryegrass cultivars in Northern Ireland. Rec. Agric. Res. 23: 23–31.Google Scholar
  19. Griffiths D.J., R.A. Pegler & T. Tonguthaisri, 1971. Cross compatibility between diploid and tetraploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Euphytica 20: 102–112.Google Scholar
  20. Gupta P.K., 1979. Nuclear DNA and meiosis in parents, F1 hybrids and F2 segregates of a Lolium temulentum × L. rigidum cross. The Nucleus 22: 171–181.Google Scholar
  21. Hermsen J.Th., 1984. Mechanisms and genetic implications of 2n gametes formation. Iowa St. J. Res. 58: 421–434.Google Scholar
  22. Lewis E.J., 1980. Chromosome pairing in tetraploid hybrids between Lolium perenne and L. multiflorum. Theor. Appl. Genet. 58: 137–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lewis E.J., 1981. Genetic segregation in relation to chromosome pairing in tetraploid hybrids between Lolium perenne and L. multiflorum. Theor. Appl. Genet. 59: 139–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lewis, E.J., 1982. Cytogenetic aspects of interspecific hybridization in relation to breeding in the ryegrass/fescue complex. Rep. Welsh Pl. Br. St. 218–235.Google Scholar
  25. Mashkina O.S., 1979. Ways of formation of unreduced microspores in the sweet cherry. Tsitologiya i Genetika 13: 343–346.Google Scholar
  26. Mendiburu A.O. & S.J. Peloquin, 1976. Sexual polyploidization and depolyploidization: some terminology and definitions. Theor. Appl. Genet. 48: 137–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Morgan W.G., 1976. A technique for the production of polyploids in grasses. Euphytica 25: 443–446.Google Scholar
  28. Olivieri A.M. & V. Ziliotto, 1981. Influence of cultural environment and sowing density on the seed and forage yield of four varieties of italian ryegrass. Sementi Ellette 27: 9–16.Google Scholar
  29. Schulz H., 1972. A comparison of di and tetraploid ryegrass cultivars: yield and carotene in pot experiment. Wirtschaftaseigene futter 18: 257–264.Google Scholar
  30. Snow R., 1963. Alcoholic-hydrochloric acid carmine as a stain of chromosomes in squash preparations. Stain Technol. 38: 9–13PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. A. Sala
    • 1
  • E. L. Camadro
    • 1
  • M. T. Salaberry
    • 1
  • A. O. Mendiburu
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorio de Genética Vegetal, Unidad Integrada Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias(Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata) y Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (I.N.T.A.)Buenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations