Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 1043–1052 | Cite as

Gibberellin-regulated expression in oat aleurone cells of two kinases that show homology to MAP kinase and a ribosomal protein kinase

  • Alison K. Huttly
  • Andrew L. Phillips
Short Communication


cDNA fragments from ten different protein kinases expressed in Avena sativa aleurone cells were amplified from mRNA by RT-PCR with degenerate primers. These could be classified into five groups: Aspk1-3 showed homology to the Snf1-related protein kinases, Aspk4-5 to a wheat ABA up-regulated protein kinase, Aspk6-8 to the Ca-dependent, calmodulin-independent protein kinase family, Aspk9 encoded a MAP kinase and Aspk10 was closely related to a novel Arabidopsis ribosomal protein kinase. GA caused a rapid increase in transcripts hybridising to Aspk10, while inhibiting the dramatic accumulation of transcripts hybridising to Aspk9 that occurred in the absence of GA.

Key words

aleurone Avena sativa GA regulation MAP kinase PCR amplification protein kinases 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alderson A, Sabelli PA, Dickinson JR, Cole D, Richardson M, Kreis M, Shewry PR, Halford NG: Complementation of snf1, a mutation affecting global regulation of carbon metabolism in yeast, by a plant protein kinase cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 8602–8605 (1991).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderberg RJ, Walker-Simmons MK: Isolation of a wheat cDNA clone for an abscisic acid-inducible transcript with homology to protein kinases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 10183–10187 (1992).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Banno H, Hirano K, Nakamura T, Irie K, Nomoto S, Matsumoto K, Machida Y: NPK1, a tobacco gene that encodes a protein with a domain homologous to yeast BCK1, Ste11 and byr2 protein kinases. Mol Cell Biol 13: 4745–4752 (1993).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bethke PC, Jones RL: Ca2+-calmodulin modulates ion channel activity in storage protein vacuoles of barley aleurone cells. Plant Cell 6: 277–285 (1994).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boulton TG, Nye SH, Robbins DJ, Ip NY, Radziejewska E, Morgenbesser SD, DePinho RA, Panayotatos N, Cobb MH, Yancopoulos GD: ERKs: a family of protein-serine/threonine kinases that are activated and tryrosine phosphorylated in response to insulin and NGF. Cell 65: 663–675 (1991).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carling D, Aguan K, Woods A, Verhoeven AJM, Beri RK, Brennan CH, Sidebottom C, Davison MD, Scott J: Mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase is homologous to yeast and plant protein kinases involved in the regulation of carbon metabolism. J Biol Chem 269: 11442–11448 (1994).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Celenza JL, Carlson M: A yeast gene that is essential for release from glucose repression encodes a protein kinase. Science 233: 1175–1180 (1986).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Duerr B, Gawienowski M, Ropp T, Jacobs T: MsERK1: a mitogen-activated kinase from a flowering plant. Plant Cell 5: 87–96 (1993).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Elion EA, Grisafi PL, Fink GR: FUS3 encodes a cdc2+/cdc28-related kinase required for the transition from mitosis into conjugation. Cell 60: 649–664 (1990).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gilroy S, Jones RL: Gibberellic acid and abscisic acid coordinately regulate cytoplasmic calcium and secretory activity in barley aleurone protoplasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 3591–3595 (1992).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gilroy S, Jones RL: Perception of gibberellin and abscisic acid at the external face of the plasma membrane of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone protoplasts. Plant Physiol 104: 1185–1192 (1994).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fincher GB: Molecular and cellular biology associated with endosperm mobilization in germinating cereal grains. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 40: 305–346 (1989).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hanks SK, Quinn AM: Protein kinase catalytic domain sequence database: identification of conserved features of primary structure and classification of family members. Meth Enzymol 201b: 38–81 (1991).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Haribabu B, Dottin RP: Identification of a protein kinase sultigene family of Dictyostelium discoideum: molecular cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding a developmentally regulated protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 1115–1119 (1991).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Harman B, Kiliman MW: cDNA encoding a 59 kDa homolog of ribosomal protein S6-kinase from rabbit liver. FEBS Lett 273: 248–252 (1990).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harper JF, Sussman MR, Schaller GE, Putnam-Evans C, Charbonneau H, Harmon AC: A calciumdependent protein kinase with a regulatory domain similar to calmodulin. Science 252: 951–954 (1991).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hasler P, Brot N, Weissbach H, Parnassa AP, Elkon KB: Ribosomal proteins P0, P1 and P2 are phosphorylated by cascin kinase II at their conserved carboxyl termini. J Biol Chem 266: 13815–13820 (1991).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hooley R, Beale MH, Smith S: Gibberellin perception at the plasma membrane of Avena fatua aleurone protoplasts. Planta 183: 274–280 (1991).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hunter T, Karin M: The regulation of transcription by phosphorylation. Cell 70: 375–387 (1992).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Huttly AK, Phillips AL, Tregear JW: Localisation of cis elements in the promoter of a wheat α-Amy2 gene. Plant Mol Biol 19: 903–911 (1992).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jonak C, Páy A, Bögre L, Hirt H, Heberle-Bors E: The plant homologue of MAP kinase is expressed in a cell cycle-dependent and organ-specific manner. Plant J 3: 611–617 (1993).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jonak C, Hererle-Bors E, Hirt H: MAP kinases: universal multi-purpose signaling tools. Plant Mol Biol 24: 407–416 (1994).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kieber JJ, Rothenberg M, Roman G, Feldmann KA, Ecker JR: CTR1, a negative regulator of the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis, encodes a member of the Raf family of protein kinases. Cell 72: 427–441 (1993).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mizoguchi T, Hayashida N, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Kamada H, Shinozaki K: ATMPKs: a gene family of plant MAP kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana. FEBS Lett 336: 440–444 (1993).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mizoguchi T, Gotoh Y, Nishida E, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Hayashida N, Iwasaki T, Kamada H, Shinozaki K: Characterisation of two cDNAs that encode MAP kinase homologues in Arabidopsis thaliana and analysis of the possible role of auxin in activating such kinase activities in cultured cells. Plant J 5: 111–122 (1994).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Naranda T, Ballesta JPG: Phosphorylation controls binding of acidic proteins to the ribosome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 10563–10567 (1991).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pérez L, Aguilar R, Pérez Méndez AP, Sánchez de Jiménez E: Phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins induced by auxins in maize embryonic tissues. Plant Physiol 94: 1270–1275 (1990).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Phillips AL, Huttly AK: Cloning of two gibberellinregulated genes from Arabidopsis thaliana by subtractive hybridisation: expression of the tonoplast water channel γ-TIP is increased by GA3. Plant Mol Biol 24: 603–615 (1994).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pilecki M, Grankowski N, Jacobs J, Gasior E: Specific protein kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells phosphorylating 60S ribosomal proteins. Eur J Biochem 206: 259–267 (1992).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Proun CG: Protein phosphorylation in translational control. In: Stadtman ER, Chock PB, Levitzki A (eds) Current Topics in Cellular Regulation, vol. 32, pp. 243–369. Academic Press, London (1992).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Roberts DM: Protein kinases with calmodulin-like domains: novel targets of calcium signals in plants. Curr Opin Cell Biol 5: 242–246 (1993).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rogers JC, Roger SW: Definition and functional implications of gibberellin and abscisic acid cis-acting hormone response complexes. Plant Cell 4: 1443–1451 (1992).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rushton PJ, Hooley R, Lazarus CM: Aleurone nuclear proteins bind to similar elements in the promoter regions of two gibberellin-regulated α-amylase genes. Plant Mol Biol 19: 891–901 (1992).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schwartz RM, Dayhoff MO: In: Dayhoff MO (ed) Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure, pp. 353–358. National Biomedical Research Foundation, Washington, DC (1979).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stafstrom JP, Altschuler A, Anderson DH: Molecular cloning and expression of a MAP kinase homologue from pea. Plant Mol Biol 22: 83–90 (1993).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sutliff TD, Lanahan MB, Ho T-HD: Gibberellin treatment stimulates nuclear factor binding to the gibberellin response complex in a barley α-amylase promoter. Plant Cell 5: 1681–1692 (1994).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thomas PS: Hybridisation of denatured RNA and small DNA fragments transferred to nitrocellulose. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 5201–5205 (1980).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wilson C, Eller N, Gartner A, Vicente O, Heberle-Bors E. Isolation and characterisation of a tobacco cDNA clone encoding a putative MAP kinase. Plant Mol Biol 23: 543–551 (1993).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhang S-H, Lawton MA, Hunter T, Lamb CJ: atpkl, a novel ribosomal protein kinase gene from Arabidopsis I. Isolation, characterisation, and expression. J Biol Chem 269: 17586–17592 (1994).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhang S-H, Broom MA, Lawton MA, Hunter T, Lamb CJ: atpkl, a novel ribosomal protein kinase gene from Arabidopsis II. Functional and biochemical analysis of the encoded protein. J Biol Chem 269: 17593–17599 (1994).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alison K. Huttly
    • 1
  • Andrew L. Phillips
    • 1
  1. 1.IACR-Long Ashton Research Station, Department of Agricultural SciencesUniversity of BristolBristolUK

Personalised recommendations