Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 91–102 | Cite as

Non-invasive image analysis evaluation of growth during plant micropropagation

  • M. A. L. Smith
  • L. Art Spomer
  • M. J. Meyer
  • M. T. McClelland


Microcomputerized video image analysis was adapted for rapid, objective, and non-intrusive quantification of shoot growth and development for plants growing in vitro. Custom-developed staging arrangements were essential to insure accurate viewing and representation of the plants in each of three standard culture vessels. Shoot length measurements from digitized culture images were strongly correlated with length measured manually ex vitro. Image analysis weighted density measurements of proliferating microcultures (even with irregular growth habits) provided a reliable indicator of shoot culture fresh weight. Non-destructive time course evaluations of growth rate and quality were demonstrated.

Key words

image analysis manual measurement microcultures shoot culture 



fresh weight


weighted density


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aitken-Christie J, Jones C (1987) Towards automation: radiata pine shoot hedges in vitro. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture 8: 185–196Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aitken-Christie J, Singh AP, Davies H (1987) Multiplication of meristematic tissue — a new tissue culture system for radiata pine. In: Hanover J, Keathley D (Eds) Genetic Manipulation of Woody Plants. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Canas LA, Carramolino L, Vincente M (1987) Vegetative propagation of the olive tree from in vitro cultured embryos. Plant Sci 50: 85–90Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cerovic R, Ruzic D (1987) Micropropagation of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cv. Sumadinka. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture 9: 151–158Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Drew RA (1988) Rapid clonal propagation of papaya in vitro from mature field-grown trees. HortSci 23: 609–611Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Economou AS, Read PE (1986) Influence of light duration and irradiance on micropropagation of hardy deciduous azalea. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 111: 146–149Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Higuchi H, Amaki N, Suzuki S (1987) In vitro propagation of Nephrolepis cordifolia Prsel. Sci Hort 32: 105–113Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ivanicka J (1987) In vitro micropropagation of mulberry, Morus nigra L. Sci Hort 32: 33–39Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kerns HR, Meyer MM (1987) Diligence finds the chemical key to micropropagating a new maple. Amer Nurs 165: 104–108Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    King SM, Morehart AL (1988) Tissue culture of osage-orange. HortSci 23: 613–615Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lakso AN, Reisch BI, Mortensen J, Roberts MH (1986) Carbon dioxide enrichment for stimulation of growth of in vitro-propagated grapevines after transfer from culture. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 111: 634–638Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lane WD, Looney NE, Mage F (1982) A selective tissue culture medium for growth of compact (dwarf) mutants of apple. Theor Appl Genet 61: 219–223Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee N, Wetzstein HY, Sommer HE (1988) Quantum flux density effects on the anatomy and surface morphology of in vitro and in vivo developed sweetgum leaves. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 113: 167–171Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mackay WA, Kitto SL (1988) Factors affecting in vitro shoot proliferation of French tarragon. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 113: 282–287Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    McGranahan G, Leslie CA, Driver JA (1988) In vitro propagation of mature persian walnut cultivars. HortSci 23:220Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Monette P (1986) Micropropagation of kiwifruit using non-axenic shoot tips. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture 6: 73–82Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15: 473–497Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pieper M, Smith MAL (1988) A whole plant microculture selection system for Kentucky bluegrass. Crop Sci 28: 611–614Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smith MAL, Spomer LA (1987) Direct quantification of in vitro cell growth through image analysis. In Vitro Cell Devel Biol 23: 67–74Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Smith MAL, Spomer LA, Skiles E (1988) An evaluation of methods for measuring cell osmolarity with in vitro and in vivo grown Lycopersicon plants. Comm Soil Sci Plant Anal 19: 1965–1982Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Smith MAL, Spomer LA, Cowen RKD (1988) Use of image analysis to quantify the expression of an unstable allele. J Hered 79: 147–150Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Spomer LA, Smith MAL (1988) Image analysis for biological research: camera influence on measurement accuracy. Intel Instr Comp 6: 210–216Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Spomer LA, Smith MAL, Sawwan JS (1988) Rapid, nondestructive measurement of chlorophyll content in leaves with uniform chlorophyll distribution. Photosynthe Res 16: 277–284Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Steel RG, Torrie JH (1980) Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    vanNieuwkerk JP, Zimmerman RH, Fordham I (1986) Thidiazuron stimulation of apple shoot proliferation in vitro. HortSci 21: 516–518Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. L. Smith
    • 1
  • L. Art Spomer
    • 1
  • M. J. Meyer
    • 1
  • M. T. McClelland
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HorticultureUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations