, Volume 86, Issue 2, pp 101–113 | Cite as

Canopy structures and its effect on shoot growth and flowering in subalpine forests

  • F. Koike
  • H. Tabata
  • S. B. Malla


Changes in foliage density distribution with altitude and its effect on shoot growth and flowering were studied in forest section planes (profiles) of subalpine forests and scrubs (Krummholz) in Nepal and Japan.

Patterns of foliage in forest canopy were evaluated by an analysis of variance. Foliage densities were very high at high altitude canopies, but the change in spatial patterns along altitude differs in both areas.

The spatial pattern of new shoot production was similar to that of current foliage density and was affected by the amount of foliage above the sample probably through light condition. Flowering of tall trees occurred in the surface of the upper canopy, but a shrub species flowered even under tree canopies.


Analysis of variance Foliage density Japan Krummholz Nepal Tree limit 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Koike
    • 1
  • H. Tabata
    • 1
  • S. B. Malla
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory for Plant Ecological Studies, Faculty of ScienceKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.S. B. Malla, Department of Medicinal PlantsHMG of NepalKathmanduNepal

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