, Volume 188, Issue 1, pp 353–359 | Cite as

Bioassays with a floating aquatic plant (Lemna minor) for effects of sprayed and dissolved glyphosate

  • W. Lyle Lockhart
  • Brian N. Billeck
  • Chris L. Baron


Macrophytes in forested areas and in prairie wetlands furnish critical habitat for aquatic communities and for several species of birds and mammals. North American agriculture relies heavily on herbicides and these compounds are detected routinely in surface waters of Western Canada. The question is whether these residues have biological meaning. There is surprisingly little literature on the responses of macrophytes to herbicides, or indeed to other chemicals. Previously we have used common duckweed in efforts to detect effects of herbicides and other chemicals. Duckweed clones were developed from local collections and grown axenically. In this study the plants were exposed to glyphosate herbicide either by dissolving formulated Roundup® (Monsanto Canada Inc.) in the culture media or by spraying of the cultures in a laboratory spray chamber. Plant growth was monitored by counting the fronds present on several occasions over a 2-week period following treatment and by taking wet and dry weights of plants after the final counting period. Plant growth, as measured by increased numbers of fronds or increased wet or dry weights was relatively insensitive to glyphosate dissolved in the culture medium. However, the plants were killed by application of glyphosate as a spray.

Key words

duckweed glyphosate Lemna phytotoxicity bioassay herbicide 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Lyle Lockhart
    • 1
  • Brian N. Billeck
    • 1
  • Chris L. Baron
    • 1
  1. 1.Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Central and Arctic RegionFreshwater InstituteWinnipegCanada

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