Hydrobiologia

, Volume 188, Issue 1, pp 353–359 | Cite as

Bioassays with a floating aquatic plant (Lemna minor) for effects of sprayed and dissolved glyphosate

  • W. Lyle Lockhart
  • Brian N. Billeck
  • Chris L. Baron
Article

Abstract

Macrophytes in forested areas and in prairie wetlands furnish critical habitat for aquatic communities and for several species of birds and mammals. North American agriculture relies heavily on herbicides and these compounds are detected routinely in surface waters of Western Canada. The question is whether these residues have biological meaning. There is surprisingly little literature on the responses of macrophytes to herbicides, or indeed to other chemicals. Previously we have used common duckweed in efforts to detect effects of herbicides and other chemicals. Duckweed clones were developed from local collections and grown axenically. In this study the plants were exposed to glyphosate herbicide either by dissolving formulated Roundup® (Monsanto Canada Inc.) in the culture media or by spraying of the cultures in a laboratory spray chamber. Plant growth was monitored by counting the fronds present on several occasions over a 2-week period following treatment and by taking wet and dry weights of plants after the final counting period. Plant growth, as measured by increased numbers of fronds or increased wet or dry weights was relatively insensitive to glyphosate dissolved in the culture medium. However, the plants were killed by application of glyphosate as a spray.

Key words

duckweed glyphosate Lemna phytotoxicity bioassay herbicide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bahadir, M. & G. Pfister, 1985. A comparative study of pesticide formulations for application in running waters. Ecotoxicol. Envir. Saf. 10: 585–590.Google Scholar
  2. Bishop, W. & R. Perry, 1981. Development and evaluation of a flow-through growth inhibition test with duckweed (Lemna minor). In: D. Branson & K. Dickson (Eds.), Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Assessment: Fourth Conference. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia. Special Technical Publication 737. pp. 421–435.Google Scholar
  3. Blackman, G. & R. Robertson-Cuninghame, 1954. Interactions in the physiological effects of growth substances on plant development. J. Exp. Bot. 54: 184–203.Google Scholar
  4. Blackman, G. & R. Robertson-Cuninghame, 1955. Interrelationships between light intensity, temperature, and the physiological effects of 2:4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the growth of Lemna minor. J. Exp. Bot. 6: 156–176.Google Scholar
  5. Chiou, C., V. F. D. Schmedding & R. Kohnert, 1977. Partition coefficient and bioaccumulation of selected organic chemicals. Envir. Sci. Technol. 11: 475–478.Google Scholar
  6. Cooley, W. & C. Foy, 1986. Effects of SC-0224 and glyphosate on inflated duckweed (Lemna gibba) growth and EPSP-synthetase activity from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 26: 365–374.Google Scholar
  7. Goldsborough, L. & A. Beck, 1989. Rapid dissipation of glyphosate in small forest ponds. Arch. Envir. Contam. Toxicol., in press.Google Scholar
  8. Gummer, W., 1980. Pesticide monitoring in the prairies of Western Canada. In: B. Afghan & D. Mackay (Eds.). Hydrocarbons and Halogenated Hydrocarbons in the Aquatic Environment, pp. 345–372. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Hartman, W. & D. Martin, 1984. Effect of suspended bentonite clay on the acute toxicity of glyphosate to Daphnia pulex and Lemna minor. Bull. Envir. Contam. Toxicol. 33: 355–361.Google Scholar
  10. Hartman, W. & D. Martin, 1985. Effects of four agricultural pesticides on Daphnia pulex, Lemna minor and Potomogeton pectinatus. Bull. Envir. Contam. Toxicol. 35: 646–651.Google Scholar
  11. Hillman, W., 1961. The Lemnaceae, or duckweeds, a review of the descriptive and experimental literature. Bot. Rev. 27: 221–287.Google Scholar
  12. Jaworski, E., 1972. Mode of action of N-phosphonomethyl-glycine: Inhibition of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 20: 1195–1198.Google Scholar
  13. Lockhart, W., B. Billeck, B. deMarch & D. Muir, 1983. Uptake and toxicity of organic compounds: Studies with an aquatic macrophyte (Lemna minor). In: W. Bishop, R. Cardwell, and B. Heidolph (Eds.), Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Assessment: Sixth Symposium, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia. ASTM STP 802. pp. 460–468.Google Scholar
  14. Lockhart, W. & A. Blouw, 1980. Phytotoxicity tests using Lemna minor. In: E. Scherer (Ed.). Toxicity Test for Freshwater Organisms, Can. Dep. Fish. Oceans, Winnipeg. Spec. Pub. Fish. Aquat. Sci. No. 44. pp. 119–130.Google Scholar
  15. Monsanto Canada Inc. Roundup Liquid Herbicide by Monsanto. 26 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Muir, D. & N. Grift, 1987. Herbicide levels in rivers draining two prairie agricultural watersheds (1984). J. Envir. Sci. Health, B22: 259–284.Google Scholar
  17. Nasu Y. & M. Kugimoto, 1981. Lemna (duckweed) as an indicator of water pollution. I. the sensitivity of Lemna paucicostata to heavy metals. Arch. Envir. Contam. Toxicol. 10: 159–169.Google Scholar
  18. Newton, M., K. Howard, B. Kelpsas, R. Danhaus, C. Lottman & S. Dubelman, 1984. Fate of glyphosate in an oregon forest ecosystem. J. Agric. Food Chem. 32: 1144–1151.Google Scholar
  19. Richardson, W., 1985. Bioassays for glyphosate. In: E. Grossbard & D. Atkinson (Eds.). The Herbicide Glyphosate, pp. 286–298. Butterworths.Google Scholar
  20. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, 1986. SAS Systems for Linear Models.Google Scholar
  21. Stebbing, A., 1982. Hormesis — the stimulation of growth by low levels of inhibitors. Sci. Tot. Envir. 22: 213–234.Google Scholar
  22. Stewart, G., 1972. The regulation of nitrite reductase level in Lemna minor L. J. Exp. Bot. 23: 171–183.Google Scholar
  23. Thayer D. & W. Haller, 1985. Effect of herbicides on floating aquatic plants. J. Aquat. Pl. Man. 23: 94–95.Google Scholar
  24. Weed Science Society of America, Champaign, Illinois, 1983. Herbicide Handbook, fifth edition. pp. 258–263.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Lyle Lockhart
    • 1
  • Brian N. Billeck
    • 1
  • Chris L. Baron
    • 1
  1. 1.Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Central and Arctic RegionFreshwater InstituteWinnipegCanada

Personalised recommendations