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Hydrobiologia

, Volume 113, Issue 1, pp 231–242 | Cite as

Tropical lakes — functional ecology and future development:. The need for a process-orientated approach

  • Jens Petter Nilssen
Article

Abstract

The major classes of tropical lakes include shallow, lowland lakes; deep, tertiary lakes; high altitudinal lakes; rainforests lakes; and man-made lakes at all latitudes and altitudes. Basic ecological processes are similar in temperate and tropical lakes, including grazing, competition, predation and abiotic adaptation. Small tropical lakes of intermediate age are probably not biotically more complicated than similar-sized temperate lakes. The structure of the areas of adaptative radiation and the dispersal ability of the species are important for the present distribution of taxa. Fish play a key role in the tropics since many species both consume zooplankton and compete with them for algal and pelagic sestonic food. This important co-evolution between fish and algae, leaving a fraction of the algal community with a predation refuge, may have decreased the ability of zooplankton to exploit algae. In addition, heavy predation from juvenile and adult fish may greatly simplify the zooplankton community, and have resulted in the scarcity of Cladocera, notably the efficient filter-feeder Daphnia. Little is known of possible physiological constraints to cladoceran distribution, however. Thus similar co-evolution as hypothesized between fish and algae seems not to have occurred to such a great extent between fish and zooplankton. Diurnal patterns in habitat selection of fish may also influence nutrient re-distribution in the tropics as in many temperate lakes. Serious environmental problems threaten tropical lakes, including eutrophication, clear-cutting of the rain forest, unwise introduction of new species not adapted to prevailing conditions, overfishing, extensive use of biocids, and probably acidic rain in areas with poorly buffered waters. Important processes in tropical lakes could be elucidated by concentrating research upon the fate of phytoplankton successional production, involving competition, grazing, sinking, fungi and bacterial attack. Co-evolution of fish and algae should be further investigated as it could in part explain the general scarcity and simplicity of the zooplankton community. Limnocorral experiments should also be used for further assessing processes in tropical lakes.

Keywords

tropical zooplankton lake typology planktivorous fish evolutionary ecology life histories photyplankton loss rates environmental problems 

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Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jens Petter Nilssen
    • 1
  1. 1.Zoological Institute, University of OsloOsloNorway

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