, Volume 64, Issue 2, pp 147–155 | Cite as

Growth and population structure of Salamandra salamandra (L.) larvae in different limnological conditions

  • M. R. Warburg
  • G. Degani
  • I. Warburg


Salamandra salamandra (L.) larvae were studied in three types of aquatic systems, a permanent spring, a rock pool and temporary ponds. Growth was followed throughout ontogenesis until completion of metamorphosis. Growth patterns changed according to the pond type. Temporary ponds were rich in organic matter and subsequently larvae matured more rapidly there than those in a permanent pool or a spring. In the latter, cannibalism appears to be of major ecological importance, enabling survival and metamorphosis of large size tadpoles. The pattern of growth and metamorphosis is compared with European salamanders and the differences are discussed considering adaptations for survival of this species under xeric conditions.


Salamandra metamorphosis aquatic biology 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bell, G. 1974. The reduction of morphological variation in natural populations of Smooth Newt larvae. J. Anim. Ecol., 43: 115–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bell, G. & Lawton, J. H. 1975. The Ecology of the eggs and larvae of the Smooth Newt (Triturus vulgaris (Linn)). J. Anim. Ecol. 44: 393–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bruce, R. C. 1975. Reproduction biology of the Mud Salamander, Psuedotriton montanus, in Western South Carolina. Copeia 1975: 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Degani, G. & Warburg, M. R. 1978. Population structure and seasonal activity of adult Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela, Salamandridae) in Israel. J. Herpetol, 12: 437–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eiselt, J. 1958. Der Feuersalamander Salamandra salamandra (L.), Beitrage zu einer taxonomischen Synthese. Abhandl. Ber. Naturk. u. Vorgesch. (Magdeburg), 10: 77–154.Google Scholar
  6. Gasche, P. 1942. Beeinflussung der Larvenablage von Salamandra salamandra L. Verh. Naturf. Ges. (Basel), 53: 246–264.Google Scholar
  7. Gasser, F. & Joly, J. 1972. Existence d'un cycle sexuel biennal chez la femelle de Salamandra salamandra fastuosa Schreiber (Urodele, Salamandridae) à differentes altitudes dans les Pyrénees Centrales: Influences des facteurs génétiques et climatiques. Ann. Sci. Natur. Zool. 12° Ser., 14: 427–444.Google Scholar
  8. Huheey, J. E. & Brandon, R. A. 1973. Rock-face populations of the Mountain Salamander, Desmognathus orchrophaeus, in North Carolina. Ecol. Monogr., 43: 59–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Joly, J. 1959. Données sur l'écologie de la Salamandre tachetée: Salamandra salamandra taeniata Duringen (1897). Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., 84: 208–215.Google Scholar
  10. Joly, J. 1968. Données écologiques sur la Salamandre tachtée Salamandra salamandra (L.) Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. 12e Ser., 10: 301–366.Google Scholar
  11. Roff, D. A. 1973. On the accuracy of some mark-recapture estimators. Oecologia, (Berl.), 12: 15–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Rose, F. L. & Armentrout, D. 1974. Population estimates of Ambystoma tigrium inhabiting two playa lakes. J. Anim. Ecol., 43: 671–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Shoop, C. R. 1974. Yearly variation in larval survival of Ambyostoma maculatum. Ecology, 55: 440–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Szabo, I. 1959. Contributions à l'oecologie de la Salamandre tachetée (Salamandra salamandra L.). Vertetrata Hungarica Mus. Hist. Nat.Hung., 1: 35–48.Google Scholar
  15. Warburg, M. R. 1971. The water economy of Israel amphibians; the urodeles Triturus vittatus (Jenyns) and Salamandra salamandra (L.). Comp. Biochem. Biophys., 40A: 1055–1063.Google Scholar
  16. Warburg, M. R. 1972. Water economy and thermal balance of Israeli and Australian Amphibia from xeric habitats. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond., 31: 79–111.Google Scholar
  17. Warburg, M. R. & Degani, G. 1978. Evaporative water loss and uptake in juvenile and adult Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia; Urodela). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. (in press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. W. Junk b.v. Publishers 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. R. Warburg
    • 1
  • G. Degani
    • 1
  • I. Warburg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyTechnion HaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations