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Euphytica

, Volume 79, Issue 3, pp 219–225 | Cite as

Molecular characerization of the interaction between the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum and tomato

  • Guy Honée
  • Guido F. J. M. Van den Ackerveken
  • Henk W. J. Van den Broek
  • Ton J. Cozijnsen
  • Matthieu H. A. J. Joosten
  • Mirian Kooman-Gersmann
  • Jacques Vervoort
  • Ralph Vogelsang
  • Paul Vossen
  • Jos P. Wubben
  • Pierre J. G. M. De Wit
Article

Abstract

The fungus Cladosprium fulvum is a biotrophic leaf pathogen of tomato. The fungus develops in the intercellular space without forming specialized feeding structures and does not affect the leaf tissue. The outcome of the C. fulvum-tomato interaction can be described by the gene-for-gene model. Failure of infection is expressed by a hypersensitive response. Two fungal proteins, ECP1 and ECP2, have been isolated and their corresponding genes have been cloned. In a compatible interaction including many physiological races ECP1 and ECP2 are highly produced and a role in pathogenicity is suggestive. The ecp1 gene shows some homology with tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) while the ecp2 gene shows no homology with sequences known in data bases. However, disruption of one of the two genes showed no reduced pathogenicity of the fungus. Two race-specific elicitors, AVR4 and AVR9, have been isolated and their corresponding genes have been cloned. The avirulence genes Avr4 and Avr9 are only present in C. fulvum avirulent on Cf-4 and Cf-9 cultivars, respectively. The expression of these two genes is, like the expression of the ecp genes, highly induced when the fungus grows in planta. Disruption of the Avr9 gene in wild type avirulent races leads to virulence on tomato genotypes carrying the complementary resistance gene Cf-9. A single base-pair change in the avirulence gene Avr4 leads to virulence on tomato genotypes carrying the Cf-4 resistance gene. Isolation, characterization and possible function of ECP1, ECP2, AVR4, and AVR9 will be discussed.

Key words

Avirulence defense response high affinity binding sites pathogenicity race specific elicitor structure-function analysis transgenic plants 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guy Honée
    • 1
  • Guido F. J. M. Van den Ackerveken
    • 1
  • Henk W. J. Van den Broek
    • 2
  • Ton J. Cozijnsen
    • 1
  • Matthieu H. A. J. Joosten
    • 1
  • Mirian Kooman-Gersmann
    • 1
  • Jacques Vervoort
    • 3
  • Ralph Vogelsang
    • 1
  • Paul Vossen
    • 1
  • Jos P. Wubben
    • 1
  • Pierre J. G. M. De Wit
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhytopathologyWageningen Agricultural UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of GeneticsWageningen Agricultural UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Institut des Sciences VégétalesCNRSGif-sur-YvetteFrace

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