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Euphytica

, Volume 76, Issue 3, pp 195–202 | Cite as

Nuclear DNA content and in vitro induced somatic polyploidization cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) breeding

  • F. Awoleye
  • M. van Duren
  • J. Dolezel
  • F. J. Novak
Article

Summary

The diploid (2C) amount of DNA in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is 1.67 picograms (pg) per cell nucleus. This value corresponds to 772 mega-base pairs in the haploid genome. The size of the nuclear genome in cassava is very small in comparison with other Angiosperms. Flow cytometry techniques were used to screen ploidy levels in a large population of in vitro plantlets treated with colchicine and oryzalin (3,5-dinitro-N4,N-dipropylsulphate). Culture of axillary node cuttings for 48 hours in liquid medium supplemented with 2.5 to 5.0 mM colchicine in combination with 2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) resulted in a high frequency (23 to 42%) of non-chimeric tetraploids in the V3 generation. Although mixoploidy may persist in as many as four cycles of vegetative propagation of node cuttings, solid (non-chimeric) tetraploids can be identified by flow cytometry among in vitro plantlets and then rapidly propagated for field testing. A somatic polyploidization system is proposed for implementation in cassava breeding programmes.

Key words

flow cytometry tetraploidy mixoploidy cassava breeding in vitro colchicination oryzalin 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Awoleye
    • 1
  • M. van Duren
    • 2
  • J. Dolezel
    • 3
  • F. J. Novak
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Agriculture, Crop Production DepartmentUniversity of IlorinIlorinNigeria
  2. 2.Plant Breeding Unit, Joint FAO/IAEA ProgrammeInternational Atomic Energy Agency's Laboratories at SeibersdorfViennaAustria
  3. 3.Department of Plant Biotechnology, Institute of Experimental BotanyCzech Academy of SciencesOlomoucCzech Republic

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