Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 317–325 | Cite as

Fertile transgenic barley by particle bombardment of immature embryos

  • Anneli Ritala
  • Kristian Aspegren
  • Ulrika Kurtén
  • Marjatta Salmenkallio-Marttila
  • Leena Mannonen
  • Riitta Hannus
  • Veli Kauppinen
  • Teemu H. Teeri
  • Tor-Magnus Enari
Research Article


Transgenic, fertile barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from the Finnish elite cultivar Kymppi was obtained by particle bombardment of immature embryos. Immature embryos were bombarded to the embryonic axis side and grown to plants without selection. Neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) activity was screened in small plantlets. One out of a total of 227 plants expressed the transferred nptII gene. This plant has until now produced 98 fertile spikes (T0), and four of the 90 T0 spikes analyzed to date contained the nptII gene. These shoots were further analyzed and they expressed the transferred gene. From green grains, embryos were isolated and grown to plantlets (T1). The four transgenic shoots of Toivo (the T0 plant) produced 25 plantlets as T1 progeny. Altogether fifteen of these T1 plants carried the transferred nptII gene as detected with the PCR technique, fourteen of which expressed the nptII gene. The integration and inheritance of the transferred nptII gene was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. Although present as several copies, the transferred gene was inherited as a single Mendelian locus into the T2 progeny.

Key words

fertile transgenic barley gene transfer Hordeum vulgare neomycin phosphotransferase II particle bombardment 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anneli Ritala
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kristian Aspegren
    • 2
  • Ulrika Kurtén
    • 1
  • Marjatta Salmenkallio-Marttila
    • 1
  • Leena Mannonen
    • 1
  • Riitta Hannus
    • 1
  • Veli Kauppinen
    • 1
  • Teemu H. Teeri
    • 2
  • Tor-Magnus Enari
    • 1
  1. 1.Biotechnical LaboratoryVTTEspooFinland
  2. 2.Institute of BiotechnologyUniversity of HelsinkiFinland

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