Advertisement

Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 967–974 | Cite as

The molecular basis of resistance to the herbicide norflurazon

  • D. Chamovitz
  • I. Pecker
  • J. Hirschberg
Article

Abstract

We have cloned and sequenced a gene, pds, from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942 that is responsible for resistance to the bleaching herbicide norflurazon. A point mutation in that gene, leading to an amino acid substitution from valine to glycine in its polypeptide product, was found to confer this resistance. Previous studies with herbicide-resistant mutants have indicated that this gene encodes phytoene desaturase (PDS), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of carotenoids. A short amino acid sequence that is homologous to conserved motifs in the binding sites for NAD(H) and NADP(H) was identified in PDS, suggesting the involvement of these dinucleotides as cofactors in phytoene desaturation.

Key words

carotenogenesis herbicide resistance norflurazon nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide phytoene desaturase Synechococcus PCC7942 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Armstrong GA, Alberti M, Leach F, Hearst JE: Nucleotide sequence, organization, and nature of the protein products the carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster of Rhodobacter capsulatus. Mol Gen Genet 216: 254–268 (1989).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bartley GE, Scolnik PA: Carotenoid biosynthesis in photosynthetic bacteria: Genetic characterization of the Rhodobacter capsulatus crtI protein. J Biol Chem 264: 13109–13113 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bramely PM: The in vitro biosynthesis of carotenoids. Adv Lipid Res 21: 243–279 (1985).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chamovitz D, Pecker I, Sandmann G, Böger P, Hirschberg J: Cloning a gene coding for norflurazon resistance in cyanobacteria. Z Naturforsch 45c: 482–486 (1990).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goodwin TW: The Biochemistry of Carotenoids, vol. 1, Chapman-Hall, New York (1980).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hirschberg J, Ohad N, Pecker I, Rabat A: Isolation and characterization of herbicide resistant mutants in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus R2. Z Naturforsch. 42c: 102–112 (1987).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Krinsky NI: Antioxidant functions of carotenoids. Free Radical Biol Med 7: 617–635 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kyte J, Doolittle RF: A simple method for displaying the hydropathic character of a protein. J Mol Biol 157: 105–132 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lachance P: Dietary intake of carotenes and the carotene gap. Clin Nutr 7: 118–122 (1988).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Linden H, Sandmann G, Chamovitz D, Hirschberg J, Böger P: Generation and biochemical characterization of Synechococcus mutants selected against the bleaching herbicide norflurazon. Pestic Biochem Physiol 36: 46–51 (1990).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sandmann G, Böger P: Inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis by herbicides. In: Böger P, Sandmann G (eds) Target Sties of Herbicide Action, pp. 25–44. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1989).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sandmann G, Kowalczk S: In vitro carotenogenesis and characterization of the phytoene desaturase reaction in Anacystis. Biochem Biophys Res Com 163: 916–921 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sandmann G, Linden H, Böger P: Enzyme kinetic studies on the interaction of norflurazon with phytoene desaturase. Z Naturforsch 44c: 787–790 (1989).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulsen AR: DNA sequencing with chain terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 5463–5467 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schmidhauser TJ, Lauter FR, Russo VEA, Yanofsky C: Cloning, sequencing and photoregulation of al-1, a carotenoid biosynthetic gene of Neurospora crassa. Mol Cell Biol 10: 5064–5070 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Scrutton NS, Berry A, Perham RN: Redesign of the coenzyme specificity of a dehydrogenase by protein engineering. Nature 343: 38–43 (1990).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Williams JGK, Szalay AA: Stable integration of foreign DNA into the chromosome of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus R2. Gene 24: 37–51 (1983).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zeevart JAD, Creelman RA: Metabolism and physiology of abscisic acid. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 39: 439–473 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Chamovitz
    • 1
  • I. Pecker
    • 1
  • J. Hirschberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeneticsThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations