Dry matter production and distribution of zinc in bread and durum wheat genotypes differing in zinc efficiency
Six bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cvs. Kiraç-66, Gerek-79, Aroona, ES 91-12, ES-14 and Kirkpinar) and four durum wheat (Triticum durum cvs. BDMM-19, Kunduru-1149, Kiziltan-91 and Durati) genotypes were grown under controlled environmental conditions in nutrient solution for 20 days to study the effect of varied supply of Zn (0 to 1 µM) on Zn deficiency symptoms in shoots, root and shoot dry matter production, and distribution of Zn in roots and shoots.
Visual Zn deficiency symptoms, such as whitish-brown lesions on leaves, appeared rapidly and severly in durum wheats, particularly in Kiziltan-91 and Durati. Among the durum wheats, BDMM-19 was less affected by Zn deficiency, and among the bread wheats Kiraç-66, ES 91-12, Aroona and Gerek-79 were less affected than ES-14 and Kirkpinar.
Under Zn deficiency, shoot dry matter production was decreased in all genotypes, but more distinctly in durum wheat genotypes. Despite severe decreases in shoot growth, root growth of all genotypes was either not affected or even increased by Zn deficiency. Correspondingly, shoot/root dry weight ratios were lower in Zn-deficient than in Zn-sufficient plants, especially in durum wheat genotypes.
The distinct differences among the genotypes in sensitivity to Zn deficiency were closely related with the Zn content (Zn accumulation) per shoot but not with the Zn concentration in the shoot dry matter. On average, genotypes with lesser deficiency symptoms contained about 42% more Zn per shoot than genotypes with severe deficiency symptoms. In contrast to shoots, the Zn content in roots did not differ between genotypes. Shoot/root ratios of total Zn content were therefore greater for genotypes with lesser deficiency symptoms than for genotypes with severe deficiency symptoms (i.e. all durum wheat genotypes).
The results suggest that the enhanced capacity of genotypes for Zn uptake and translocation from roots to shoot meristems under deficient Zn supply might be the most important factor contributing to Zn efficiency in wheat genotypes. The results also demonstrate that under severe Zn deficiency, Zn concentration in the shoot dry matter is not a suitable parameter for distinguishing wheat genotypes in their sensitivity to Zn deficiency.
Key wordsbread wheat durum wheat genotypes zinc concentration zinc deficiency zinc efficiency
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