Plant and Soil

, Volume 181, Issue 2, pp 193–203 | Cite as

Time-course study and partial characterization of a protein on hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi during active colonization of roots

  • S. F. Wright
  • M. Franke-Snyder
  • J. B. Morton
  • A. Upadhyaya


Material on the surface of hyphal walls of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) during active colonization of plant roots was detected by a monoclonal antibody. Pot-cultured isolates of Glomus, Acaulospora, Gigaspora, Scutellospora, and Entrophospora had immunofluorescent material (IM) on younger, thinner, intact hyphae, but IM was scant to absent on thicker, melanized or lysing hyphae. Colonization of corn (Zea mays L.), Sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Staph.) or red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) was examined during 5 months of plant growth by removing cores and performing an indirect immunoassay on roots with attached hyphae. Fresh spores of some Glomus spp. had IM on the outer layer of the spore wall. Abundant IM was seen on root hairs of plants colonized by some isolates, and some IM was detected on root surfaces of all plants examined even during early colonization. After cultures were dried, hyphae, roots and spores had little to no IM. Uninoculated control roots had very rare, small patches of IM. An immunoreactive protein was extracted from hyphae of Gigaspora and Glomus isolates by using 20mM citrate (pH 7.0) at 121°C for 90 min. Gel electrophoresis profiles indicated that all isolates tested had the same banding patterns. Lectin-binding of extracted protein is suggestive of a glycoprotein. The immunofluorescence assay can be used to examine root sections for active colonization by AMF, and the potential use of the protein to quantify AMF activity in soil is discussed.

Key words

fungal protein heat-stable protein Glomales vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. F. Wright
    • 1
  • M. Franke-Snyder
    • 1
  • J. B. Morton
    • 2
  • A. Upadhyaya
    • 1
  1. 1.Soil Microbial Systems LaboratoryUnited States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research ServiceBeltsvilleUSA
  2. 2.Division of Plant and Soil SciencesWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA

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