Plant and Soil

, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 323–334

Effects of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids on rice seedling growth and nutrition

  • D. Niranjan Rao
  • D. S. Mikkelsen
Article

Summary

Soils which are flooded for lowland rice culture shift from aerobic to anaerobic organic matter transformations. Anaerobic carbon transformations, involving chiefly rice crop residues, are characterized by the formation of various organic acids. These may accumulate after prolonged incubations in amounts sufficient to be toxic to developing rice seedlings. In these experiments the effects of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids were studied at 1, 5, and 10 mN on the growth and nutrition of 14 day old (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar ‘Earlirose’ rice seedlings. Nutrient solutions were used in the experiments with pH controlled at 6.5 in one experiment and in another the acid concentrations were allowed to attain equilibrium pH with the nutrient solution (1 mN=4.6, 5 mN=3.9, and 10 mN=3.8).

Root elongation of rice seedlings was decreased by increased organic acid concentrations at both pH's. New root initiation was totally inhibited at all organic acid concentrations at equilibrium pH, and at 10 mN with pH 6.5. New root initiation at 1 and 5 mN at pH 6.5 allowed increased seedling dry matter production, whereas it was reduced in all other treatments. Plant height and weight were also decreased by increased acid concentrations. At pH 6.5 the plants showed no specific symptoms of organic acid toxicity except reduced growth. At equilibrium pH values specific symptoms were observed. At 1 mN, the seedlings withered, similar to desiccation; at 5 mN the leaf tips showed symptoms similar to bronzing; and at 10 mN the seedlings died after 24 hours.

Uptake of both P and K by roots were reduced by increased concentrations of all organic acids at both pH's. P concentration and total uptake were reduced in the shoots with all treatments, whereas the effects on K in shoots were not consistent.

The magnitude of organic acid toxicity is a function of the kind, concentration and the degree of dissociation of the acid. Increased media pH reduces the toxicity of the acid concentrations.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. 1.
    Chandrasekaran, S. and Yoshida, T., Effect of organic acid transformations in submerged soils on growth of rice plant. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 19, 39–45 (1973).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chapman, H. D. and Pratt, P. E., Methods of analysis for soils, plants and waters. Publ. Univ. of Calif., Divs. of Agric. Sci. pp. 169–170 (1961).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gotoh, S. and Onikura, Y., The production of organic acids in water-logged soils in presence of organic matter under laboratory conditions. Bull. Kyushu Agric. Exp. Stn. 12, 235–249.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gotoh, S. and Onikura, Y., The production of organic acids in the presence of rice straw in relation to the growth and yield of rice plant using pot culture technique. Bull. Kyushu Agric. Exp. Stn. 13, 173–186 (1970). Through Biol. Abstr. 51, 11939 #121153.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gotoh, S. and Onikura, Y., Organic acids in a flooded soil receiving added rice straw and their effect on the growth of rice. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 17, 1–18 (1971).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mitsui, S., Aso, S., Kumazawa, K. and Ishiwara, T., The nutrient uptake of rice plant as influenced by H2S and butyric acid abundantly evolving under water-logged soil conditions. Trans. Inst. Cong. Soil Sci. 5, 364–368 (1954).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Patrick, Z. A., Toussoum, T. A. and Snyder, W. C., Phytotoxic substances in arable soils associated with decomposition of plant residues. Phytopathology 53, 152–161 (1963).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Robinson, T. W. and Taylor, A. B., Effect of acetic acid on the respiration of parts of oat seedlings. Am. J. Bot. 28, (10) 135. Abstract. (1974).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Takijima, Y., Growth inhibiting action of organic acids and absorption and decomposition of them by soils. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 10, 204–211 (1964).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Takijima, Y., Relations between production of organic acids in water-logged soils and the root growth inhibition. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 10, 212–219 (1964).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Takijima, Y., Root damage and growth inhibitory substances found in the peaty and peat soil. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 10, 231–238 (1964).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Takijima, Y., Shiojima, M. and Arita, Y., Effect of organic acids in root elongation and nutrient absorption of rice plants. J. Sci. Soil Manure, Japan 31, 441–446. Through Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 7, 30–31 (1960).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tanaka, A. and Navasero, S. A., CO2 and organic acids in relation to the growth of rice. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 13, 25–30 (1967).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Niranjan Rao
    • 1
  • D. S. Mikkelsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Agronomy and Range ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaDavis

Personalised recommendations