Plant and Soil

, Volume 178, Issue 1, pp 59–66 | Cite as

Effect of heavy metals on peppermint and cornmint

  • Valcho D. Zheljazkov
  • Niels E. Nielsen
Research Article

Abstract

Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils and air is one of the most severe ecological problems on a world scale and in Bulgaria in particular. The biggest sources of pollution in Bulgaria are some non-ferrous metals smelters, such as the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (NFMC) near Plovdiv, situated on very fertile soils. Vegetable, arable and animal production in this area results in contaminated produce with excessive amounts of Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn and Zn.

In order to discover some crops which could be grown on these areas without contamination of the end product, we conducted (in 1991–1993) field experiments in the vicinities of NFMC near Plovdiv. As experimental material we used Mentha piperita L. (cv Tundza and Clone No 1) and Mentha arvensis var piperascens Malinv. (cv Mentolna-14). Plants have been grown on three Plots: Plot No 1-at a distance of 400 m from the source of pollution; Plot No 2-at 3 km from the source of pollution and on a control Plot-in the experimental gardens of University of Agriculture in Plovdiv, at 10 km from the source of pollution. It was established that heavy metal pollution of soil and air at a distance of 400 m from the source of pollution decreased the yields of fresh herbage by 9–16% and the yield of essential oil by up to 14% compared to the control, but did not negatively affect the essential oil content and its quality.

Oils obtained from Plot 1 at a distance of 400 m from the source of pollution have not been contaminated with heavy metals.

Cultivar response to heavy metal pollution was established. A positive correlation between Pb concentration in leaves and in essential oil was found.

Heavy metal concentration in the plant parts was found to be in order: for Cd roots > leaves > rhizomes > stems; Pb roots = leaves > rhizomes = stems; Cu roots > rhizomes = stems = leaves; Mn roots > leaves > stems = rhizomes; Zn leaves > roots > stems = rhizomes.

The tested cultivars of peppermint and cornmint could be successfully grown in highly heavy metal polluted areas, as in the area around NFMC near Plovdiv, without contamination of the end product-the essential oils.

Despite of the yield reduction (up to 14%), due to heavy metal contamination, mint still remained a very profitable crop and it could be used as substitute for the other highly contaminated crops.

Key words

cornmint essential oil plants heavy metals mint pollution NHO3 extraction 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alva A K and Chen E Q 1995 Effects of external copper concentration on uptake of trace elements by citrus seedlings. Soil Sci. 159, 59–64.Google Scholar
  2. Ali E A 1993 Damage to plants due to industrial pollution and their use as bioindicators in Egypt. Environ. Pollut. 81, 251–255.Google Scholar
  3. Baumeister W and Ernst W 1978 Mineralstoffe und Pflanzenwachstum. Fisher, Stuttgart, Germany. 416p.Google Scholar
  4. Bokori J 1994 Occurrence of cadmium in nature and its more important physiological characteristics. Magy. Allatorv. Lapja 49, 69–73.Google Scholar
  5. Broyer T C, Johnson C N and Paull R E 1972 Some aspects of lead in plant nutrition. Plant and Soil 36, 301.Google Scholar
  6. Chizzola R 1988 Metallic elements in herbs and spices grown in Austria. International Symposium on Heavy Metals and Pesticide Residue in Medicinal, Aromatic and Spice Plants Novi Sad Yugoslavia, May 25–28.Google Scholar
  7. Davies J G and Parker M B 1993 Zinc toxicity symptom development and portioning of biomass and zinc in peanut plants. J. Plant Nutr. 12, 2353–2369.Google Scholar
  8. Davies B E 1993 Radish as an indicator plant for derelict land: uptake of zinc at toxic concentrations. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 24, 1883–1895.Google Scholar
  9. Faber A and Niezgoda J I 1982 Contamination of soils and plants in a vicinity of the zinc and lead smelter. Rocz. Glebozn. 33, 93.Google Scholar
  10. Foy C D, Scott B J and Fisher J A 1988 Genetic differences in plant tolerance to manganese toxicity. In Manganese in Soils and Plant. Eds. R D Graham, R J Hannam and N CUreh. p 293. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  11. Gupta V K and Dixit M L 1992 Influence of soil applied cadmium on growth and nutrient composition on plant species. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 4, 878–880.Google Scholar
  12. Isermann K 1977 Method to reduce contamination and uptake of lead by plants from car exhaust gases. Environ. Pollut. 12, 199.Google Scholar
  13. Ishenko G S, Butnik A S and Afanas'eva T F 1992 Evaluation of joint contamination of wheat crops by lead, cadmium, stroncium-90 and caesium-137. Agrokhimiya 6, 99–10.Google Scholar
  14. Kabata-Pendias A and Pendias H 1992 Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. IInd edit., CRC press. 365p.Google Scholar
  15. Loneragan J F 1975 The availability and absorption of trace elements in soil-plant systems and their relation to movement and concentration of trace elements in plants. In Trace Elements in Soil-Plant-Animal Systems. Eds. D J D Nicholas and A R Egan. p 109. Academic Press, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  16. Luna C M, Gonzalez C A and Trippt V S 1994 Oxidative damage caused by an excess of copper in oat leaves. Plant and Cell Physiol. 1, 11–15.Google Scholar
  17. Lyszcz S and Ruszkowska M 1991 Different responses of some plant species to excess of zinc. Roczniki-Gleeboz 4, 215–221.Google Scholar
  18. Malysowa E and Patorczyk-Pytlik B 1991 Reaction of two oat varieties to cadmium content in the soil. Polish J. Soil Sci. 24, 205–210.Google Scholar
  19. Misra A 1992 Effect of zinc stress in Japanese mint as related to growth, Photosynthesis, chlorophyll contents and secondary plant products-the monotherpenes. Photosynthetica 26, 225–234.Google Scholar
  20. Misra A 1993 Iron deficiency and toxicity in Japanese mint Mentha arvensis L. J. Herbs Spices Med. Plants, 1, 65–75.Google Scholar
  21. Morishita T and Boratynski J K 1992 Accumulation of cadmium and other metals in organs of plants growing around metal smelters in Japan. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 4, 781–785.Google Scholar
  22. Narwal R P, Mahendra S, Singh J P, Dahiya D J and Singh M 1993 Cadmium-zinc interaction in maize grown on sewer water irrigated soil. Arid Soil Res. Rehabil. 2, 125–131.Google Scholar
  23. Rascio N, Vecchia F-dalla, Feretti M, Merlo L, Chisi R and Dalla-Vecchia F 1993 Some effects of cadmium on maize plants. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 25, 244–249.Google Scholar
  24. Ren F C, Liu T C, Liu H Q and Hu B Y 1993 Influence of zinc on the growth, distribution of elements. and metabolism of one-year old American ginseng plants. J. Plant Nutr. 16, 393–405.Google Scholar
  25. Riedel G 1993 Effect of excessive contents of soil cadmium and zinc on the vitality of balsam poplar hybrids (Populus maximiwiczii × P. trichocarpa). Forstarchiv. 64, 17–20.Google Scholar
  26. Salim R, Al-Subu M M and Atallah A 1993 Effects of root and foliar treatments with lead, cadmium, and copper on the uptake distribution and growth of radish plants. Environ. Int. 19, 393–404.Google Scholar
  27. Salim R, Al-Subu M M, Douleh A, Chnavier L and Hagemeyer J 1992 Effects of root and foliar treatments of carrot plants with lead and cadmium on the growth, uptake and the distribution of uptake of metals in treated plants. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part A. Environ. Sci. Eng. 27, 1739–1758.Google Scholar
  28. Salim R, AI-Subu M M Douleh A and Khalaf S 1992 Effects of growth and uptake of broad beans (Vicia fabae L.) by root and foliar treatments of plant with lead and cadmium. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part A. Environ. Sci. Eng. 27, 1619–1642.Google Scholar
  29. Santos C M dos Neto M M P M, de-Varennes A, Marques-dos-Santos C, Dos Santos C M and DeVarennes A 1993 Some effects of different levels of lead on berseem. In Optimization of plant nutrition, Eds. M L van Beusichem and M A C Fragoso. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp 517–521.Google Scholar
  30. Sengalevitch G 1993 Heavy metal pollution of the soils in the vicinities of non-ferrous metals combine near Plovdiv. Zemcdelie 1/2, 18–23.Google Scholar
  31. Shariatpanahi M and Anderson A C 1986 Accumulation of cadmium, mercury and lead by vegetables following long-term land application of waste-water. Sci. Total Environ. 52, 41–47.Google Scholar
  32. Sovljanski R, Lazic S, Macko U and Obradovic S 1990 Heavy metal content in medicinal and spice plants cultivated in Yugoslavia. Herba Hun. 29, 59–62.Google Scholar
  33. Sovljanski R, Kisgeci J, Obradovic S, Lazic S and Macko U 1989 The heavy metals contents and quality of hop cones treated by pesticides during vegetation. Acta Hortic. 249, 81–88.Google Scholar
  34. Zheljazkov V and Nielsen N 1993 Studies on the effect of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) upon the growth, productivity and quality of lavender (Lavandula vera D.C.) production. A paper presented at the 24rd International Symposium on Essential Oils, July 20–23, Berlin. J. Essential Oil Res. (In press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valcho D. Zheljazkov
    • 1
  • Niels E. Nielsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Nutrition Lab, Department of Agricultural SciencesThe Royal Veterinary and Agricultural UniversityFrederiksberg CDenmark

Personalised recommendations