Plant and Soil

, Volume 182, Issue 1, pp 115–124 | Cite as

Cadmium uptake and bioaccumulation in selected cultivars of durum wheat and flax as affected by soil type

  • G. Cieśliński
  • K. C. J. Van Rees
  • P. M. Huang
  • L. M. Kozak
  • H. P. W. Rostad
  • D. R. Knott
Article

Abstract

Accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in crop plants is of great concern due to the potential for food chain contamination through the soil-root interface. Although Cd uptake varies considerably with plant species, the processes which determine the accumulation of Cd in plant tissues are affected by soil factors. The influence of soil type on Cd uptake by durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) was studied in a pot experiment under environmentally controlled growth chamber conditions. Four cultivars/lines of durum wheat (Kyle, Sceptre, DT 627, and DT 637) and three cultivars/lines of flax (Flanders, AC Emerson, and YSED 2) were grown in two Saskatchewan soils: an Orthic Gray Luvisol (low background Cd concentration; total/ABDTPA extractable Cd: 0.12/0.03 mg kg-1, respectively) and a Dark Brown Chernozem (relatively high background Cd concentration; total/ABDTPA Cd: 0.34/0.17 mg kg-1 respectively). Plant roots, stems, newly developed heads, and grain/seeds were analyzed for Cd concentration at three stages of plant growth: two and seven weeks after germination, and at plant maturity. The results showed that Cd bioaccumulation and distribution within the plants were strongly affected by both soil type and plant cultivar/line. The Cd concentration in roots leaves and stems varied at different stages of plant growth. However, all cultivars of both plant species grown in the Chernozemic soil accumulated more Cd in grain/seeds than plants grown in the Orthic Gray Luvisol soil. The different Cd accumulation pattern also corresponded to the levels of ABDTPA extractable and metal-organic complex bound soil Cd found in both soils. Large differences were found in grain Cd among the durum wheat cultivars grown in the same soil type, suggesting the importance of rhizosphere processes in Cd bioaccumulation and/or Cd transport processes within the plant. Distribution of Cd in parts of mature plants showed that durum grain contained up to 21 and 36% of the total amount of Cd taken up by the plants for the Orthic Gray Luvisol and Chernozemic soils, respectively. These results indicate the importance of studying Cd speciation, bioaccumulation and cycling in the environment for the management of agricultural soils and crops.

Key words

cadmium bioaccumulation Linum usitatissimum L. soil type Triticum turgidum var. durum L. 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Cieśliński
    • 1
  • K. C. J. Van Rees
    • 2
  • P. M. Huang
    • 2
  • L. M. Kozak
    • 3
  • H. P. W. Rostad
    • 3
  • D. R. Knott
    • 4
  1. 1.Research Institute of Pomology and FloricultureSkierniewicePoland
  2. 2.Department of Soil ScienceUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  3. 3.Saskatchewan Land Resource Unit, Centre for Land and Biological Resource ResearchAgriculture and Agri-Food CanadaSaskatoonCanada
  4. 4.Department of Crop Science and Plant EcologyUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

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