Plant and Soil

, Volume 125, Issue 2, pp 255–262 | Cite as

Comparative effects of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources applied to a flooded soil on rice yield and availability of N



A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) sources on the yield and N uptake of rice from applied and native soil-N. The residual effect of these N sources on a succeeding wheat crop was also studied. Organic N was applied in the form of 15N-labelled Sesbania aculeata L., a legume, and inorganic N in the form of 15N-labelled ammonium sulphate. The two sources were applied to the soil separately or together at the time of transplanting rice.

Recovery of N by rice from both the applied sources was quite low but both sources caused significant increases in biomass and N yield of rice. Maximum increase was recorded in soil treated with organic N. The residual value of the two materials as source of N for wheat was not significant; the wheat took up only a small fraction of the N initially applied. Loss of N occurred from both applied N sources, the losses being more from inorganic N.

Both applied N sources caused a substantial increase in the availability of soil-N to rice and wheat; most of this increase was due to organic N and was attributed to the so-called ‘priming’ effect or ANI (added nitrogen interaction) of the applied material.

Key words

added N interaction flooded soil nitrogen availability 15priming effect rice soil nitrogen 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Azam F and Malik K A 1985 Transformation of Diplachne fusca and Sesbania aculeata under different conditions. Pak. J. Soil Sci. 1, 31–38.Google Scholar
  2. Azam F, Malik K A and Sajjad M I 1985 Transformations in soil and availability to plants of 15N applied as inorganic fertilizer and legume residues. Plant and Soil 86, 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azam F, Malik K A and Sajjad M I 1986 Uptake by wheat plants and turnover within soil fractions of residual N from leguminous plant material and inorganic fertilizer. Plant and Soil 95, 97–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azam F, Mulvaney R L and Stevenson F J 1988 Quantification and potential availability of non-symbiotically fixed 15N in soil. Biol. Fertil. Soils 7, 32–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Azam F, Mulvaney R L and Stevenson F J 1989a Transformation of 15N-labelled leguminous plant material in three contrasting soils. Biol. Fertil. Soils 8, 54–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Azam F, Mulvaney R L and Stevenson F J 1989b Synthesis of 15N-labelled microbial biomass in soil in situ and extraction of biomass N. Biol. Fertil. Soils 7, 180–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beri V and Meelu O P 1981 Substitution of nitrogen through green manure in rice. Indian Farming 31, 3–4.Google Scholar
  8. Bhatti H M, Yasin M and Rashid M 1985 Evaluation of sesbania green manuring in rice-wheat rotation. In Nitrogen and the Environment. Eds. K AMalik, M I HAleem and S H MNaqvi. pp 275–284, NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan.Google Scholar
  9. Bremner J M and Mulvaney C S 1982 Total nitrogen. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Eds. Page A L, Miller R H and Keeney D R. pp 594–624. Am. Soc. Agron. Monogr. 10. Vol. 2, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  10. Broadbent F E 1981 Methodology for nitrogen transformation and balance in soil. Plant and Soil 58, 383–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Broadbent F E and Mikkelsen D S 1968 Influence of placement on uptake of tagged nitrogen by rice. Agron. J. 60, 674–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Broadbent F E and Reyes O C 1971 Uptake of soil and fertilizer nitrogen by rice in some Philippine soils. Soil Sci. 112, 200–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hauck R D and Bremner J M 1976 Use of tracers for soil nitrogen research. Adv. Agron. 28, 219–266.Google Scholar
  14. Huang D, Gao J and Zhu P 1981 Transformation and distribution of organic and inorganic fertilizer nitrogen in rice and soil system. In Symposium on Paddy Soils. pp 570–577. Science Press, Beijing.Google Scholar
  15. Ito O and Watanabe I 1985 Availability to rice plants of nitrogen fixed by Azolla. Soil Sci. Pl. Nutr. 31, 91–104.Google Scholar
  16. Jansson S L 1971 Use of 15N in studies of soil nitrogen. In Soil Biochemistry, Eds. McLaren A D and Skujins J. pp 129–166. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Jansson S L and Persson J 1982 Mineralization and immobilization of nitrogen in agricultural soils. In Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils. Ed. Stevenson F J. pp 229–252. Am. Soc. Agron. Monogr. 10, Vol. 2, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  18. Jenkinson D S, Fox R H and Rayner J H 1985 Interactions between fertilizer nitrogen and soil nitrogen — the so-called ‘priming’ effect. J. Soil Sci. 36, 425–444.Google Scholar
  19. Ladd J N, Jackson R B, Amato M and Butler J H A 1983 Utilization by wheat crops of nitrogen from 15N-labelled legume residues decomposing in soils in the field. Soil Biol. Biochem. 15, 231–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mian M H and Stewart W D P 1985a Fate of nitrogen applied as Azolla and blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) in water-logged rice soils-a 15N tracer study. Plant and Soil 83, 363–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mian M H and Stewart W D P 1985b A 15N tracer study to compare nitrogen supply by Azolla and ammonium sulphate to IR8 rice plants grown under flooded conditions. Plant and Soil 83, 371–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mo S and Qian J 1983 Studies on the transformation of nitrogen of milk vetch in red earth and its availability to rice plant. Acta Pedol. Sin. 20, 12–22.Google Scholar
  23. Morris R A, Furoc R E and Dizon M A 1986a Rice responses to short-duration green manure. I. Grain yield. Agron. J. 78, 409–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Morris R A, Furoc R E and Dizon M A 1986b Rice responses to short-duration green manure. II. N recovery and utilization. Agron. J. 78, 413–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Patrick W HJr, Delaune R D and Peterson F J 1974 Nitrogen utilization by rice using 15N-depleted ammonium sulphate. Agron. J. 66, 819–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Westcott M P and Mikkelsen D S 1985 Comparative effects of an organic and inorganic nitrogen source in flooded soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 49, 1470–1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Azam
    • 1
  1. 1.Soil Biology DivisionNuclear Institute for Agriculture and BiologyFaisalabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations