Systematic Parasitology

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 125–144 | Cite as

Life-cycle, delimitation and redescription of Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich, 1802) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae)

  • Ivan Kanev
Article

Abstract

The life-cycle of Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich, 1802) Dietz, 1909 has been completed experimentally beginning with infected snails collected at the type-locality, near Erlangen, Germany. Based on the specimens obtained, each stage of the life-cycle has been redescribed. Important taxonomic features are discussed and hitherto unknown characteristics are described. Synonyms for E. revolutum are: Fasciola revoluta Froelich, 1802; Echinostoma paraulum Dietz, 1909; E. audyi Lie & Umathevy, 1965; and E. ivaniosi Mohandas, 1973. Adults and larvae described as E. revolutum in other works are found to be identical with Echinostoma echinatum (Zeder, 1803), E. trivolvis (Cort, 1914), E. jurini (Skvortsov, 1924), E. caproni Richard, 1964, Moliniella anceps (Molin, 1859), Echinochasmus beleocephalus (Linstow, 1873) and other echinostome species. For nearly a century, incorrect morphological, biological, life-cycle and host information has been attributed to E. revolutum, and at times these data have contributed to the diagnoses of the species. Occasionally, authors actually working with E. revolutum have ascribed their results to other species. Based on extensive experimental life-cycle studies beginning with infected snails from type-localities, it is shown that (1) the first intermediate host is a lymnaeid snail; (2) the second intermediate hosts are various pulmonate and prosobranch snails, mussels, frogs and freshwater turtles; (3) the final hosts are birds; (4) E. revolutum cercariae and adults have 37 collar spines; (5) the species occurs only in Europe and Asia; (6) Cercaria echinata Siebold, 1937, Echinostoma echinatum (Zeder, 1803) and E. jurini (Skvortsov, 1924) are the closely related 37-spined allies in Europe; and (7) species specific characteristics are expressed only in the larvae and the host-parasite relationships. The adults of E. revolutum cannot be identified using morphological criteria and it is proposed that worms with 37 collar spines belonging to the genus Echinostoma and occurring in naturally infected birds in Europe and Asia be referred to an “E. revolutum group.”

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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivan Kanev
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of ParasitologyBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria

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