Systematic Parasitology

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 125–144 | Cite as

Life-cycle, delimitation and redescription of Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich, 1802) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae)

  • Ivan Kanev


The life-cycle of Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich, 1802) Dietz, 1909 has been completed experimentally beginning with infected snails collected at the type-locality, near Erlangen, Germany. Based on the specimens obtained, each stage of the life-cycle has been redescribed. Important taxonomic features are discussed and hitherto unknown characteristics are described. Synonyms for E. revolutum are: Fasciola revoluta Froelich, 1802; Echinostoma paraulum Dietz, 1909; E. audyi Lie & Umathevy, 1965; and E. ivaniosi Mohandas, 1973. Adults and larvae described as E. revolutum in other works are found to be identical with Echinostoma echinatum (Zeder, 1803), E. trivolvis (Cort, 1914), E. jurini (Skvortsov, 1924), E. caproni Richard, 1964, Moliniella anceps (Molin, 1859), Echinochasmus beleocephalus (Linstow, 1873) and other echinostome species. For nearly a century, incorrect morphological, biological, life-cycle and host information has been attributed to E. revolutum, and at times these data have contributed to the diagnoses of the species. Occasionally, authors actually working with E. revolutum have ascribed their results to other species. Based on extensive experimental life-cycle studies beginning with infected snails from type-localities, it is shown that (1) the first intermediate host is a lymnaeid snail; (2) the second intermediate hosts are various pulmonate and prosobranch snails, mussels, frogs and freshwater turtles; (3) the final hosts are birds; (4) E. revolutum cercariae and adults have 37 collar spines; (5) the species occurs only in Europe and Asia; (6) Cercaria echinata Siebold, 1937, Echinostoma echinatum (Zeder, 1803) and E. jurini (Skvortsov, 1924) are the closely related 37-spined allies in Europe; and (7) species specific characteristics are expressed only in the larvae and the host-parasite relationships. The adults of E. revolutum cannot be identified using morphological criteria and it is proposed that worms with 37 collar spines belonging to the genus Echinostoma and occurring in naturally infected birds in Europe and Asia be referred to an “E. revolutum group.”


Morphological Criterion Molin Infected Snail Infected Bird Taxonomic Feature 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Balusek, J. & Vojtek, J. (1973) Prispevek k poznany nasich cercarii. Folia Prirodovedecke Fakulty University J.E. Parkyne 40, 3–43.Google Scholar
  2. Bashkirova, E.E. (1941) [Echinostomatidae of birds of the USSR and observations of their life cycle.] Trudy Bashkirskii Nauchnich Issledovatelski Veterinarni Opytnich Stantsii, 3, 243–300. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  3. Beaver, P.C. (1937) Experimental studies on Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich) a fluke from birds and mammals. Illinois Biological Monographs, 15, 96 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Bisseru, B. (1953) Some stages in the development of larval echinostomes recovered from molluscs acting as carriers of schistosomes in Central Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 47, 262–263.Google Scholar
  5. Bisseru, B. (1967) Stages in the development of larval echinostomes recovered from schistosome transmitting molluscs in Central Africa. Journal of Helminthology, 2, 89–108.Google Scholar
  6. Bonne, C., Bras, G. & Lie, K.J. (1947) Five human echinostomes in the Malayan Archipelago. Medical Maandbladt, 2, 207.Google Scholar
  7. Bonne, C., Bras, G. & Lie, K.J. (1953) Five human echinostomes in the Malayan Archipelago. American Journal of Digestive Diseases, 20, 12–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bremser, J.G. (1824) Icones helminthum, systema Rudolphi entozoologicum illustrantes. Fasc. 3. Wien, 15 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Christensen, N.O. (1980) Echinostoma revolutum. Labeling of miracidia with radioselenium in vivo and assay for host finding. Experimental Parasitology, 50, 67–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Christensen, N.O., Odabio, A.B. & Simonsen, P.E. (1988) Echinostoma population regulation in experimental rodent definitive host. Parasitology Research, 75, 83–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Christensen, N.O., Fried, B. & Kanev, I. (1990) Taxonomy of 37 collar spined Echinostoma (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in studies on the population regulation in experimental rodent hosts. Angewandte Parasitologie, 31, 121–130Google Scholar
  12. Dawes, B. (1968) The Trematoda with special reference to British and European forms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 450 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Diesing, K.M. (1850) Systema Helminthum. Vol. I. Wien, 680 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Diesing, K.M. (1858) Revision der Myzhelminthen. Abtheilung: Trematoden. Akademie der Wissenschaften, 390 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Dietz, E. (1909a) Die Echinostomatiden der Vogel. Zoologische Anzeiger, 34, 180–192.Google Scholar
  16. Dietz, E. (1909b) Die Echinostomatiden der Vogel. Dissertation Thesis, Konigsberg, 180 pp.Google Scholar
  17. Dietz, E. (1910) Die Echinostomatiden der Vogel. Zoologische Jahrbucher, 12, 265–512.Google Scholar
  18. Dimitrov, V. (1987) [Argentophilic tegumentary structures of the larval stages of some trematodes.] PhD Thesis, Sofia, 230 pp. (In Bulgarian).Google Scholar
  19. Donges, J. (1969) Entwicklungs und Lebensdauer von Metacercarien. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 31, 340–366.Google Scholar
  20. Donges, J. (1971) The potential number of redial generations in echinostomatids (Trematoda). International Journal for Parasitology, 1, 51–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Donges, J. (1972) Double infection experiments with echinostomatids (Trematoda) in Lymnaea stagnalis by implantation of rediae and exposure to miracidia. International Journal for Parasitology, 2, 409–423.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Donovick, R.A. & Fried, B. (1988) Scanning electron microscopy of Echinostoma revolutum and E. liei from domestic chicks. Journal of the Pennsylvania Academy of Sciences, 62, 78–82.Google Scholar
  23. Ercolani, G. (1881) Dell'adattamento delle specie all'ambiente, nuove ricerche sulla storia genetica di Trematodi. Memorie della Reale Accademia della Scienza dell'Instituto di Bologna, 2, 237–334.Google Scholar
  24. Fried, B. & Fink, L. (1968) Transplantation of Echinostoma revolutum (Trematoda) into the chick coelom. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Sciences, 42, 61–62.Google Scholar
  25. Froelich, J.A.von (1802) Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der Eingewedewurmer. Der Naturforscher, 29, 5–96.Google Scholar
  26. Hsu, K., Lie, K.J. & Basch, P. (1968) The life history of Echinostoma rodriguesi sp. n. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Journal of Parasitology, 54, 333–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Huffman, J.E. & Fried, B. (1990) Echinostoma and echinostomiasis. Advances in Parasitology, 29, 215–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Iskova, N.I. (1985) [Fauna of Ukraine. Vol. 34. Part 4. Echinostomata.] Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 198 pp. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  29. Iwata, M. & Tamura, O. (1933) Some intestinal parasites in the duck from Japan. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses, 14, 1–6.Google Scholar
  30. Jeyarasasingam, U., Heyneman, D., Lim, H.K. & Mansor, N. (1972) Life cycle of a new echinostome from Egypt, Echinostoma liei sp. n. (Trematoda:Echinostomatidae). Parasitology, 65, 203–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Johnson, J.C. (1920) The life cycle of Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich). University of California Publications in Zoology, 19, 335–388.Google Scholar
  32. Johnston, T.H. & Angel, L.M. (1941) The life history of Echinostoma revolutum in South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 65, 317–322.Google Scholar
  33. Kamburov, P. & Vassilev, I. (1972) On the helminth fauna in certain wild aquatic birds (Anseres) in Bulgaria. Bulletin of the Central Helminthological Laboratory, 15, 109–133. (In Bulgarian with English summary).Google Scholar
  34. Kanev, I. (1977) On the species belonging of some echinostomes found in Bulgaria. Biologia, Sofia, 28–29.Google Scholar
  35. Kanev, I. (1980) Studies on the species belonging of echinostomes (Trematoda) in Bulgaria. IV. On the development and ecology of Echinostoma audyi Lie et Umathevy, 1965. Khelmintologia, 9, 39–50. (In Bulgarian, with English summary).Google Scholar
  36. Kanev, I. (1982) On the species belonging of some echinostomes found in Austria. Biologia, Plovdiv, 14–15.Google Scholar
  37. Kanev, I. (1985) On the morphology, biology, ecology and taxonomy of Echinostoma revolutum group (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae: Echinostoma). DSc Thesis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, 467 pp. (In Bulgarian with English summary).Google Scholar
  38. Kanev, I. (1987) Incapsulation and inactivation of Echinostoma revolutum sporocysts from the tissue and haemolymph of Lymnaea stagnalis snails. Khelmintologia, 24, 26–30. (In Bulgarian with English summary).Google Scholar
  39. Kanev, I. & Fried, B. (1982) Further studies on Cercaria echinostoma revolutum of Beaver, 1937 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Khelmintologia, 14, 44–54. (In Bulgarian with English summary).Google Scholar
  40. Kanev, I. & Odening, K. (1983) Further studies on Cercaria spinifera La Valette, 1855 in Central Europe. Khelmintologia, 15, 24–34.Google Scholar
  41. Kanev, I. & Vassilev, I. (1980) On the validity of Echinostoma robustum Yamaguti, 1935 (Trematoda). Morphologic and biologic studies. Biologia, Sofia, 128–129.Google Scholar
  42. Kanev, I. & Vassilev, I. (1981a) Examination of Echinostoma species found in Europe. Biologia, Sofia, 186–187.Google Scholar
  43. Kanev, I., Nguen Thi Le & Ha Duy Ngog (1983) On the species belonging of some Echinostomes found in Vietnam. Biologia, Varna, 17–19.Google Scholar
  44. Kanev, I., Vassilev, I., Bayssade-Dufour, C., Albaret, J.L. & Cassone, J. (1987) Chetotaxie cercarienne d'Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich, 1802) et E. echinatum (Zeder, 1803) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée, 62, 222–234.Google Scholar
  45. Kanev, I., Vassilev, I., Lie, K. J. & Fried, B. (1988) Identification and distribution of Echinostoma revolutum sensu Beaver, 1937 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) Biologia, Sofia, 25–26.Google Scholar
  46. Kanev, I., Eizenhut, U., Ostrowski de Nunez, M., Manga Gonzalez, M.Y. & Tzolov, D., (1992a) Penetration and paraoesophageal gland cells in Echinostoma revolutum cercariae from its type locality. Acta Parasitologica [In press]Google Scholar
  47. Kanev, I., Eizenhut, U., Ostrowski de Nunez, M., Manga Gonzalez, M.Y., Tzolov, D. & Radev, V. (1992b) Redescription of the tail and fin folds in Echinostoma revolutum cercariae from its type locality. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée [In press]Google Scholar
  48. Kolarova, L. (1986) Zivotni cycly motolic a moznost jejich experimentalnino ovlivneni. PhD Thesis, Prague, 160 pp.Google Scholar
  49. Kosupko, G.A. (1968) Morphological criteria of species in genus Echinostoma. [Proceedings of a scientific conference], Moscow, 19–21 (In Russian).Google Scholar
  50. Kosupko, G.A. (1969) Morphological peculiarity of cercariae of Echinostoma revolutum and Echinostoma miyagawai. Trudy vsesoyuznogo Instituta Helminthologii, 15, 159–165 (In Russian).Google Scholar
  51. Kosupko, G.A. (1970) [Criteria for Echinostoma revolutum in experimental material]. [Abstracts of helminthological studies in honour of K.I. Skrjabin's 90th anniversary.] Moscow, 167–175 (In Russian).Google Scholar
  52. Kosupko, G.A. (1971) [New data on the morphology and biology of Echinostoma revolutum and Echinostoma miyagawai (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).] Bulletin Instituta Imeni K.I. Skrjabin, 5, 43–45 (In Russian).Google Scholar
  53. Kosupko, G.A. (1972) [Studies on the morphological and biological peculiarity of Echinostoma revolutum (v. Froelich, 1802) and Echinostoma miyagawai Ishii, 1932 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) on experimental material.] PhD Thesis, Moscow, 258 pp. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  54. La Valette de St. George (1855) Symbolae ad trematodum evolutionis historiam. Dissertation, Philosophy Faculty, University of Berlin, 38 pp.Google Scholar
  55. Lie, K.J. (1965) Studies on Echinostomatidae (Trematoda) in Malaga. IX. The Mehlis' gland complex in echinostomes. Parasitology, 51, 789–792.Google Scholar
  56. Lie, K.J. & Basch, P.F. (1967) The life history of Echinostoma paraensei sp.n. (Trematoda). Journal of Parasitology, 53, 1,192–1,1199.Google Scholar
  57. Lie, K.J. & Kanev, I. (1983) Identification and distribution of Echinostoma lindoense, E. audyi, and E. revolutum (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 69, 223–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lie, K.J. & Umathevy, T. (1965) Studies on Echinostomatidae (Trematoda) in Malaya. VIII. The life history of Echinostoma audyi sp. n. Journal of Parasitology, 51, 781–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lie, K.J., Nasemary, S. & Impand, P. (1973) Five echinostome species from Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 4, 96–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lie, K.J., Heyneman, D., Jeyrasasingam, U. & Lim, H.K. (1974) Difference between Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich) and Echinostoma liei Jeyarasasingam, Heyneman, Lim and Mansour. Folia Parasitologica, 21, 21–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Linstow, O.F.von (1873) Einige neue Distomen und Bemerkungen uber die weiblishen Sexualorgane der Trematoden. Archiv für Naturgeschichten, 39, 95–108.Google Scholar
  62. Linstow, O.F.von (1884) Helminthologisches. Archiv für Naturgeschichten, 50, 125–145.Google Scholar
  63. Linstow, O.F.von (1894) Helminthologische Studien. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaften, 28, 328–342.Google Scholar
  64. Looss, A. (1899) Weitere Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Trematoden-Fauna Aegyptens, zugleich Versuch einer naturlichen Gliederung des Genus Distomum Retzius. Zoologische Jahrbucher, 12, 521–784.Google Scholar
  65. Lutz, A. (1924) Untersuchungen uber die Entwicklungsgeschichte brasilianischer Trematoden. Spezieller Teil. I. Echinostomatidae. Memorias Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 17, 75–93.Google Scholar
  66. McDonald, M.E. (1969) Catalogue of helminths of waterfowl (Anatidae). US Fish and Wildlife Service. Special Scientific Report. Wildlife, 126, Washington, 692 pp.Google Scholar
  67. McDonald, M.E. (1981) Key to trematodes reported in waterfowl. US Department of the Interior. Fish and Wildlife Service, Resource Publication, 142, Washington, 156 pp.Google Scholar
  68. Mendheim, H. (1940) Beitrage zur Systematik und Biologie der Familie Echinostomatidae (Trematoda). Nova Acta Leopoldina, 8, 489–688.Google Scholar
  69. Mendheim, H. (1943) Beitrage zur Systematik und Biologie der Familie Echinostomatidae. Archiv für Naturgeschifte, 12, 175–302.Google Scholar
  70. Mohandas, A. (1973) Studies on the life history of Echinostoma ivaniosi n. sp..Journal of Helminthology, 47, 421–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Mohandas, A. (1981) Studies on the freshwater cercariae of Kerala. VII. Echinostomatid cercariae. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Animal Science, 90, 433–455.Google Scholar
  72. Moravec, F., Barus, V. & Yousif, F. (1974) Observations on the development of two echinostomes, Echinoparyphium recurvatum and Echinostoma revolutum, the antagonists of human schistosomes in Egypt. Folia Parasitologica, 21, 107–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Nasincova, V. (1986) Contribution to the distribution and the life history of Echinostoma revolutum (Trematoda) in Central Europe. Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke, 50, 70–80.Google Scholar
  74. Nezvalova, L. (1970) Prispevek k posnani cercarii jizni Moravy. Spisy Prirodovi Fakulty University J. E. Purkunev v Brne, 515, 217–252.Google Scholar
  75. Odening, K. (1964) What is Cercaria spinifera La Valette? Some remarks on the species identity and biology of some echinostome cercariae. In: Ergens, G. & Rysavy, B. (Eds) Parasitic worms and aquatic conditions. Czech Academy of Sciences, pp. 91–97.Google Scholar
  76. Odening, K. (1970) Some freshwater cercariae from north Vietnam. In: Singh, K.S. & Tandan, B.K. (Eds), H.D. Srivastava Commemoration Volume. Izatnagar: Indian Veterinary Research Institute, pp. 455–466.Google Scholar
  77. Odening, K. (1986) Rezensionen. Angewandte Parasitologie, 27, 62–63.Google Scholar
  78. Patnaik, M.M. & Ray, S.K. (1966) On the life history and distribution of E. revolutum in Orissa. Indian Veterinary Journal, 7, 791–800.Google Scholar
  79. Prokopic, J. & Genov, T. (1974) Distribution of helminths in micromammals (Insectivora and Rodentia) under different ecological and geographical conditions. Studie. Ceskoslovenska Akdemie Ved, 9, 115–159.Google Scholar
  80. Richard, J. & Brygoo, E.R. (1978) Cycle evolutif du trematode Echinostoma caproni Richard, 1964 (Echinostomatidae). Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée, 53, 265–275.Google Scholar
  81. Rudolphi, C.A. (1809) Entozoorum sive vermium intestinalium historia naturalis. 2. Amstelacdami, 560 pp.Google Scholar
  82. Rudolphi, C.A. (1819) Entorzoorum synopsis cui accedunt mantissa duplex et indices locupletissimi. Berolini, 811 pp.Google Scholar
  83. Rysavy, B., Barus, V., Moravec, F. & Yousif, F. (1974) On some problems of the biological control of human schistosomes in Egypt. Folia Parasitologica, 21, 161–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rysavy, B., Ergenes, R., Groschaft, J., Yousif, F. & Hassan, A.I. (1975) Larval trematode stages in water snails from the area of Warak El Arab (A.R.E.). Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke, 39, 135–153.Google Scholar
  85. Schuster, R. (1986) Echinostoma echinatum, Notocotylus noyeri and Quinqueserialis quinqueserialis are rare parasites of Rattus norvegicus. Angewandte Parasitologie, 27, 221–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Sharpilo, L. (1973) [Helminthes of birds.] Dissertation Thesis, Institute of Zoology, Kiev, 188 pp. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  87. Siebold, K.T. (1837) Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Helminthen. In: Burdach, K.F. (Ed.). Die Physiologie als Erfahrungswissenschaft. Leipzig, 2, 183–213.Google Scholar
  88. Siebold, K.T. (1842) Excerpta zoologica: on metamorphoses among intestinal worms. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 63, 118–121.Google Scholar
  89. Skrjabin, K.I. (1947) [Family Echinostomatidae Dietz, 1909.] Osnovy Trematodologii, 1, 310–384 (In Russian).Google Scholar
  90. Skrjabin, K.I. (1956) [Family Echinostomatidae Dietz, 1909.] Osnovy Trematodologii, 12, 51–917 (In Russian).Google Scholar
  91. Sprehn, C. (1930) Wichtige Endoparasiten de deutschen Hausgeflugels. Berliner Tierarztel Wochenschriben, 46, 765–774.Google Scholar
  92. Sprehn, C. (1932) Lehrbuch der Helminthologie. Eine Naturgeschichte der in deutschen Saugetieren und ogeln schmarotzenden Wurmer unter besonderer Berucksichtigung der Helminthen des Henschen der Haustiere und Wichtigsten Nutztiere. Berlin, 998 pp.Google Scholar
  93. Supperer, R. (1959) Untersuchungen uber Parasiten der Hausente, Anas platyrhynchos dom. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 19, 259–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tenora, F. (1963) Prehled citzopasnych gervu mysic rodu Apodemus v CSSR. Zoologicni Listy, 12, 331–336.Google Scholar
  95. Tsuchimochi, K. (1924) On the life history of two echinostoma trematodes N 1. (Studies on the trematodes of the birds in Formosa. I.) Dobutsugaku Zasshi Tokyo, 36, 245–258. (In Japanese).Google Scholar
  96. Tubangui, M.A. (1932) Observations on the life history of Echinoparyphium murinum Tubagui 1931 and Echinostoma revolutum (v. Froelich, 1802) (Trematoda). Philippine Journal of Sciences, 47, 496–513.Google Scholar
  97. Vassilev, I. & Kamburov, P. (1972) Studies on the ecology of the echinostomatide found in domestic fowl in Bulgaria. Izvestiya na Tsentralnata Khelmintologichna Laboratoriya, 15, 33–48. (In Bulgarian with English summary).Google Scholar
  98. Vassilev, I. & Kanev, I. (1979) Studies on the species belonging of echinostomes (Trematoda) in Bulgaria. III. Determination of two species of Echinostoma cercariae with 37 collar spines. Khelmintologia, 8, 6–23. (In Bulgarian with English summary).Google Scholar
  99. Vassilev, I. & Kanev, I. (1981) Studies on the species belonging of echinostomes (Trematoda) in Bulgaria. V. On the development and ecology of Echinostoma lindoense Sandgroung et Bonne, 1940. Khelmintologia, 11, 3–18. (In Bulgarian with English summary).Google Scholar
  100. Vassilev, I. & Kanev, I. (1985) On the morphology, biology, ecology and taxonomy of 37 collar spined echinostomes from Vietnam. Helminthologia, 22, 15–22.Google Scholar
  101. Vassilev, I., Mihov, L., Kanev, I. & Fried, B. (1984) A comparative electrophoretic study of adult worms considered in Europe and the USA as identical with Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich, 1802). Khelmintologia, 17, 10–15. (In Bulgarian with English summary).Google Scholar
  102. Vassilev, I., Kanev, I., Swetlikowski, M. & Busta, J. (1982a) On the species belonging of some echinostomes found in Poland and Czechoslovakia. Biologia, Sofia, 13–14.Google Scholar
  103. Vassilev, I, Kanev, I., Swetlikowski, M. & Busta, J. (1982b) Establishment of an echinostome with the features of Echinostoma lindoense Sandground et Bonne, 1940 (Echinostomatidae: Trematoda) in Poland et Czechoslovakia. Khelmintologia, 13, 12–21. (In Bulgarian with English summary).Google Scholar
  104. Voltz, A. (1987) Contribution à l'identification par la biometrie et le typage enzymatique de souches experimentales et de populations naturelles de trematodes du genre Echinostoma. Dissertation These, University of Strasburg, Strasbourg, 202 pp.Google Scholar
  105. Voltz, A., Richard, J. & Pesson, B. (1987) A genetic comparison between natural and laboratory strains of Echinostoma (Trematoda) by isoenzymatic analysis. Parasitology, 95, 471–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Wesenberg-Lund, C. (1934) Contributions to the development of the Trematoda (Digenea). Part II. The biology of the freshwater cercariae in Danish freshwaters. Memoriam Academy of the Royal Sciences et des Lettres de Danmark, 9, 223.Google Scholar
  107. Yamaguti, S. (1958) Systema helminthum. Vol. I. The digenetic trematodes of vertebrates, Parts I and II. London and New York: Interscience Publishers, 1,575 pp.Google Scholar
  108. Yamaguti, S. (1971) Synopsis of digenetic trematodes of vertebrates. Tokyo: Keigaku, 1,074 pp.Google Scholar
  109. Yamaguti, S. (1975) A synoptical review of life histories of digenetic trematodes of vertebrates. Tokyo: Keigaku, 590 pp.Google Scholar
  110. Zajicek, D. (1963) Cercariae a dalsi vyvojovastadia motolic u plzu z nehterych rybnich soustav jiznich Cech. Czeskoslovenske Parasitologie, 10, 187–206.Google Scholar
  111. Zdarska, Z. (1963) Larvalni stadia motolic z vodnich plzu CSSR. Czeskoslovenske Parasitologie, 10, 207–262.Google Scholar
  112. Zdarska, Z. (1964) Dalsi nalezy larvalnich na uzemi CSSR. Vestnik Czechoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke, 28, 14–25.Google Scholar
  113. Zdarska, Z. & Nasincova, V. (1985) Histological and histochemical studies of the cercaria of Echinostoma revolutum. Folia Parasitologica, 32, 341–347.Google Scholar
  114. Zdarska, Z., Nasincova, V., Sterba, J. & Valkounova, J. (1987) Ultrastructure of a new type of sensory ending in Echinostoma revolutum cercaria (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Folia Parasitologica, 34, 311–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Zeder, J.C.H. (1800) Erster Nachtrag zur Naturgeschichte der Eingeweidewurmer, mit Zufassen und Anmerkungen herausgegeben. Leipzig, 320 pp.Google Scholar
  116. Zeder, J.C.H. (1803) Anleitung zur Naturgeschichte der Eingeweidewurmer. Bamberg, 432 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivan Kanev
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of ParasitologyBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria

Personalised recommendations