Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 134, Issue 1, pp 11–19 | Cite as

The swimming and feeding behavior of Mesocyclops

  • Craig E. Williamson
Article

Abstract

The swimming and feeding behaviors of Mesocyclops are described from a review of the literature and personal observations.

Mesocyclops exhibits considerable behavioral flexibility in response to environmental stimuli. Mesocyclops edax exhibits an increase in horizontal looping behavior at high prey densities, and performs a tight vertical looping behavior in response to the loss of captured prey. Ingestion rates by Mesocyclops are a complex function of prey density, morphology, and behavior in addition to prey size. Vertebrate predators induce a rapid escape response in Mesocyclops and may be responsible at least in part for their extensive diel vertical migrations. The complex behavioral patterns of Mesocyclops suggest that its distribution and abundance in nature will be distinctly nonrandom and influenced as much by its own behavioral responses as by other external physical factors such as water circulation patterns.

Keywords

Mesocyclops swimming behavior feeding behavior 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Begg, G. W., 1976. The relationship between the diurnal movements of some of the zooplankton and the sardine Limnothrissa miodon in Lake Kariba, Rhodesia. Limnol. Oceanogr. 21: 529–539.Google Scholar
  2. Brandl, Z., 1973. Laboratory culture of cyclopoid copepods on a definite food. Věst. Čsl. Spol. Zool. 37: 81–88.Google Scholar
  3. Brandl, Z. & C. H. Fernando, 1975a. Food consumption and utilization in two freshwater cyclopoid copepods (Mesocyclops edax and Cyclops vicinus). Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 60: 471–494.Google Scholar
  4. Brandl, Z. & C. H. Fernando, 1975b. Investigations on the feeding of carnivorous cyclopoids. Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol. 19: 2959–2965.Google Scholar
  5. Brandl, Z. & C. H. Fernando, 1978. Prey selection by the cyclopoid copepods Mesocyclops edax and Cyclops vicinus. Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol. 20: 2505–2510.Google Scholar
  6. Brandl, Z. & C. H. Fernando, 1979. The impact of predation by the copepod Mesocyclops edax (Forbes) on zooplankton in three lakes in Ontario, Canada. Can. J. Zool. 57: 940–942.Google Scholar
  7. Clarke, N. V., 1978. The food of adult copepods from Lake Kainji, Nigeria. Freshwat. Biol. 8: 321–326.Google Scholar
  8. Confer, J. L., 1971. Intrazooplankton predation by Mesocyclops edax at natural prey densities. Limnol. Oceanogr. 16: 663–666.Google Scholar
  9. Confer, J. L. & P. I. Blades, 1975. Omnivorous zooplankton and planktivorous fish. Limnol. Oceanogr. 20: 571–579.Google Scholar
  10. Davis, C. C., 1959. Damage to fish fry by Cyclopoid copepods. Ohio J. Sci. 59: 101–102.Google Scholar
  11. Drenner, R. W. & S. R. McComas, 1980. The roles of zooplankter escape ability and fish size selectivity in the selective feeding and impact of planktivorous fish. In: W. C. Kerfoot (ed.), Evolution and ecology of zooplankton communities. University Press of New England, Hanover (NH); Lond. 587–593.Google Scholar
  12. Drenner, R. W., J. R. Strickler & W. J. O'Brien, 1978. Capture probability: the role of zooplankter escape in the selective feeding of planktivorous fish. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 35: 1370–1373.Google Scholar
  13. Drenner, R. W., G. L. Vinyard, M. Gophen & S. R. McComas, 1982. Feeding behavior of the cichlid, Sarotherodon galilaeum: selective predation on Lake Kinneret zooplankton. Hydrobiologia 87: 17–20.Google Scholar
  14. Einsle, U., 1968. Die Gattung Mesocyclops in Bodensee. Arch. Hydrobiol. 64: 131–169.Google Scholar
  15. Epp, R. W. & W. M. Lewis, Jr., 1979. Metabolic responses to temperature change in a tropical freshwater copepod (Mesocyclops brasilianus) and their adaptive significance. Oecologia 42: 123–138.Google Scholar
  16. Epp, R. W. & W. M. Lewis, Jr., 1980. The nature and ecological significance of metabolic changes during the life history of copepods. Ecology 61: 259–264.Google Scholar
  17. Fabian, M. W., 1960. Mortality of fresh water and tropical fish fry by Cyclopoid copepods. Ohio J. Sci. 60: 268–270.Google Scholar
  18. Fryer, G., 1957a. The feeding mechanism of some freshwater cyclopoid copepods. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 129: 1–25.Google Scholar
  19. Fryer, G., 1957b. The food of some freshwater cyclopoid copepods and its ecological significance. J. Anim. Ecol. 26: 263–286.Google Scholar
  20. Gilbert, J. J. & C. E. Williamson, 1978. Predator-prey behavior and its effect on rotifer survival in associations of Mesocyclops edax, Asplanchna girodi, Polyarthra vulgaris, and Keratella cochlearis. Oecologia 37: 13–32.Google Scholar
  21. Gophen, M., 1972. Zooplankton distribution in Lake Kinneret (Israel). 1969–1970. Isr. J. Zool. 21: 17–27.Google Scholar
  22. Gophen, M., 1976. Temperature effect on lifespan, metabolism, and development time of Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus). Oecologia 25: 271–277.Google Scholar
  23. Gophen, M., 1977. Food and feeding habits of Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus) in Lake Kinneret (Israel). Freshwat. Biol. 7: 513–518.Google Scholar
  24. Gophen, M., 1978. Errors in the estimation of recruitment of early stages of Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus) caused by the diurnal periodicity of egg-production. Hydrobiologia 57: 59–64.Google Scholar
  25. Gophen, M., 1981. The metabolism of adult Mesocyclops leuckarti populations in Lake Kinneret (Israel) during 1969–1978. Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol. 21: 1568–1572.Google Scholar
  26. Gophen, M., B. Z. Cavari & T. Berman, 1974. Zooplankton feeding on differentially labeled algae and bacteria. Nature 247: 393–394.Google Scholar
  27. Gophen, M., R. W. Drenner & G. L. Vinyard, 1983. Cichlid stocking and the decline of the Galilee Saint Peter's fish (Sarotherodon galilaeus) in Lake Kinneret, Israel. Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 40: 983–986.Google Scholar
  28. Gophen, M. & R. P. Harris, 1981. Visual predation by a marine cyclopoid copepod, Corycaeus anglicus. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK 61: 391–399.Google Scholar
  29. Gras, R., A. Iltis & L. Saint-Jean, 1971. Biologie des crustaces du Lac Tchad, 2. Regime alimentaire des Entomostracés planctoniques. Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M. Paris, Sér. Hydrobiol. 5: 285–296.Google Scholar
  30. Jamieson, C. D., 1980a. The predatory feeding of copepodid stages III to adult Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus). In: W. C. Kerfoot (ed.), Evolution and ecology of zooplankton communities. The University Press of New England, Hanover (NH), Lond.: 518–537.Google Scholar
  31. Jamieson, C. D., 1980b. Observations on the effect of diet and temperature on rate of development of Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus) (Copepoda, Cyclopoida). Crustaceana 38: 145–154.Google Scholar
  32. Karabin, A., 1978. The pressure of pelagic predators of the kenus Mesocyclops (Copepoda, Crustacea) on small zooplankton. Ekol. Pol. 26: 241–257.Google Scholar
  33. Kerfoot, W. C., 1978. Combat between predatory copepods and their prey: Cyclops, Epischura, and Bosmina. Limnol. Oceanogr. 23: 1089–1102.Google Scholar
  34. Monakov, A. V., 1976. Feeding and food interrelationships in freshwater copepods. Nauka Press Leningrad, 170 pp. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  35. Monakov, A. V. & Y. I. Sorokin, 1959. Experimental studies of the carnivorous feeding of Cyclops by means of an isotope method. Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Biol. Sci. 125: 319–321.Google Scholar
  36. Monakov, A. V. & Y. I. Sorokin, 1972. Some results on investigations on nutrition of water animals. In: Z. Kajak & A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska (eds.), Productivity problems of freshwaters. IBP-UNESCO Symp. Prod. Probl. Freshwat. Kazimierz Dolny, Poland: 765–773.Google Scholar
  37. Murdoch, W. W., 1969. Switching in general predators: Experiments on predator specificity and stability of prey populations. Ecol. Monogr. 39: 335–354.Google Scholar
  38. Rosenthal, H., 1972. Uber die Geschwindigkeit der Sprungbewegungen bei Cyclops strenuus (Copepoda). Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 57: 157–167.Google Scholar
  39. Smyly, W. J. P., 1961. The life-cycle of the freshwater copepod Cyclops leuckarti Claus in Estwaite Water. J. Anim. Ecol. 30: 153–169.Google Scholar
  40. Stepanova, L. A., 1970. Rations of Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus) and Leptodora kindtii (Focke) populations in Lake Ilmen. Hydrobiol. J. 8: 70–72.Google Scholar
  41. Strickler, J. R., 1975. Swimming of planktonic Cyclops species (Copepoda, Crustacea): Pattern, movements and their control. In: T. Y. T. Wu, C. J. Brokaw & C. Brennan (eds.), Swimming and flying in nature. 2: 599–613.Google Scholar
  42. Strickler, J. R. & A. K. Bal, 1973. Setae of the first antennae of the copepod Cyclops scutifer (Sars): Their structure and importance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70: 2656–2659.Google Scholar
  43. Twombly, S., 1983. Seasonal and short term fluctuations in zooplankton abundance in tropical Lake Malawi. Limnol. Oceanogr. 28: 1214–1224.Google Scholar
  44. Unger, P. A. & W. M. Lewis, Jr., 1983. Selective predation with respect to body size in a population of the fish Xenomelaniris venezuelae (Atherinidae). Ecology 64: 1136–1144.Google Scholar
  45. Vijverberg, J., 1977. Population structure, life histories and abundance of copepods in Tjeukemeer, the Netherlands. Freshwat. Biol. 7: 579–597.Google Scholar
  46. Williamson, C. E., 1980. The predatory behavior of Mesocyclops edax: Predator preferences, prey defenses, and starvation-induced changes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 25: 903–909.Google Scholar
  47. Williamson, C. E., 1981. Foraging behavior of a freshwater copepod: frequency changes in looping behavior at high and low prey densities. Oecologia 50: 332–336.Google Scholar
  48. Williamson, C. E., 1983. Behavioral interactions between a cyclopoid copepod predator and its prey. J. Plankton Res. 5: 701–711.Google Scholar
  49. Williamson, C. E., 1984. Laboratory and field experiments on the feeding ecology of the freshwater cyclopoid copepod, Mesocyclops edax. Freshwat. Biol. 14: 575–585.Google Scholar
  50. Williamson, C. E. & J. J. Gilbert, 1980. Variation among zooplankton predators: The potential of Asplanchna, Mesocyclops, and Cyclops to attack, capture, and eat various rotifer prey. In: W. C. Kerfoot (ed.), Evolution and ecology of zooplankton communities. University Press of New England, Hanover, (NH), Lond.: 509–517.Google Scholar
  51. Williamson, C. E. & R. E. Magnien, 1982. Diel vertical migration in Mesocyclops edax: implications for predation rate estimates. J. Plankton Res. 4: 329–339.Google Scholar
  52. Woodmansee, R. A. & B. J. Grantham, 1961. Diel vertical migrations of two zooplankters (Mesocyclops and Chaoborus) in a Mississippi Lake. Ecology 42: 619–628.Google Scholar
  53. Worthington, E. B., 1931. Vertical movements of freshwater macroplankton. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 25: 394–436.Google Scholar
  54. Wright, D., W. J. O'Brien & G. L. Vinyard, 1980. Adaptive value of vertical migration: A simulation model argument for the predation hypothesis. In: W. C. Kerfoot (ed.), Evolution and ecology of zooplankton communities. University Press of New England, Hanover (NH), Lond.: 138–147.Google Scholar
  55. Wyngaard, G. A., 1978. The relationship between the reproductive rate of a predaceous copepod, prey item abundance and temperature. M. Sci. Thesis, Univ. S. Florida, Tampa, 57 pp.Google Scholar
  56. Wyngaard, G. A. & C. C. Chinnappa, 1982. General biology and cytology of cyclopoids. In: F. W. Harrison & R. R. Cowden (eds.), Developmental biology of freshwater invertebrates. Alan R. Liss, Inc., N.Y.: 485–533.Google Scholar
  57. Wyngaard, G. A., J. L. Elmore & B. C. Cowell, 1982. Dynamics of a subtropical plankton community with emphasis on the copepod Mesocyclops edax. Hydrobiologia 89: 39–48.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Craig E. Williamson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology #31Lehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA

Personalised recommendations