Hydrobiologia

, Volume 243, Issue 1, pp 175–183

Plankton ecology in an ice-covered bay of Lake Michigan: utilization of a winter phytoplankton bloom by reproducing copepods

  • Henry A. Vanderploeg
  • Stanley J. Bolsenga
  • Gary L. Fahnenstiel
  • James R. Liebig
  • Wayne S. Gardner
Productivity and Energy Flows

DOI: 10.1007/BF00007033

Cite this article as:
Vanderploeg, H.A., Bolsenga, S.J., Fahnenstiel, G.L. et al. Hydrobiologia (1992) 243: 175. doi:10.1007/BF00007033
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Abstract

Plankton ecology was examined during the 1986 winter in Grand Traverse Bay, a 190 m deep, fjordlike bay on Lake Michigan. Before ice cover, algal concentration was low and uniformly distributed with depth, as it is in open Lake Michigan. During ice cover (February and March), a bloom of a typical winter-spring phytoplankton community developed in the upper 40 m, resulting in a 4 to 7-fold increase in feeding rate of adult Diaptomus spp. High algal concentration and zooplankton feeding persisted after ice melt (April). During and after ice cover, lipid concentrations of Diaptomus dropped rapidly from 34% of dry weight to 17 % because of egg production. High incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), high (45–50%) PAR transmittance of the ice due to little snow on the ice, and water column stability were probably responsible for the bloom. High ice transparency may be a common feature of large lakes and bays, where strong winds blow snow cover off the ice, or at low latitudes where snowmelt due to occasional rains and warm temperature is common. Winter reproducing calanoid copepods use these blooms to increase their reproductive output.

Key words

winter ecology under-ice ecology plankton Great Lakes ice copepods 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henry A. Vanderploeg
    • 1
  • Stanley J. Bolsenga
    • 1
  • Gary L. Fahnenstiel
    • 1
  • James R. Liebig
    • 1
  • Wayne S. Gardner
    • 1
  1. 1.Great Lakes Environmental Research LaboratoryNational Oceanic & Atmospheric AdministrationAnn ArborUSA

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