Hydrobiologia

, Volume 229, Issue 1, pp 23–41

Sources, concentrations and characteristics of organic matter in softwater lakes and streams of the Swedish forest region

  • Markus Meili
Origin and nature of DOM in lakes

Abstract

18 Swedish forest lakes covering a wide range of dystrophy were studied in order to quantify and characterize the organic matter in the water with respect to origin (allochthonous or autochthonous), physical state (particulate or dissolved) and phosphorus content. Samples were collected repeatedly during a two-year period with unusually variable hydrological conditions. Water from three different depths and from tributaries was analysed with standard monitoring methods, including water colour, Secchi disk transparency, total organic carbon (TOC), CODCr, CODMn, total phosphorus and molybdate reactive phosphorus. Interrelationships were used to compare different methods and to assess the concentration and composition of organic matter. It is estimated that in remote softwater lakes of the Swedish forest region, autochthonous carbon is typically < 5 g m−3. Most lakes in this region receive significant amounts of humic matter originating from coniferous forest soils or peatland in the catchment area. In most humic lakes with a water colour of ≥ 50 g Pt m−3, more than half of the organic carbon in the surface water is of allochthonous origin, and in polyhumic lakes (> 200 g Pt m−3) the proportion can exceed 90%. Secchi depth readings were related similarly to organic matter from both sources and provided good estimates of TOC with a single optical measurement. Water colour was used to distinguish allochthonous and autochthonous matter. High concentrations of phosphorus were found in humic waters, most of it being molybdate reactive, and probably associated with humic matter rather than as dissolved free inorganic forms. CODMn yielded only 25–60% of TOC and appears to include mainly truly dissolved substances of low molecular weight.

Key words

TOC COD humic colour Secchi phosphorus carbon permanganate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Åberg, B. & W. Rodhe, 1942. Über die Milieufaktoren in einigen südschwedischen Seen. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses V:3, 256 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Ahlgren, I. & G. M. Ahlgren, 1976. Analytical methods for water chemistry (revised 1984, in Swedish). Institute of Limnology, Uppsala University, Sweden.Google Scholar
  3. Birge, E. A. & C. Juday, 1934. Particulate and dissolved organic matter in inland lakes. Ecol. Monogr. 4: 440–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boström, B., 1984. Potential mobility of phosphorus in different types of lake sediments. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 69: 457–474.Google Scholar
  5. Bruenig, E. F., 1987. The forest ecosystem: Tropical and boreal. Ambio 16: 68–79.Google Scholar
  6. Carlson, R. E., 1977. A trophic state index for lakes. Linmol. Oceanogr. 22: 361–369.Google Scholar
  7. Chow-Fraser, P. & H. Duthie, 1987. Response of the phytoplankton community to weekly additions of monoammonium phosphate in a dystrophic lake. Arch. Hydrobiol. 110: 67–82.Google Scholar
  8. Cole, J. J., W. H. McDowell & G. E. Likens, 1984. Sources and molecular weight of ‘dissolved’ organic carbon in an oligotrophic lake. Oikos 42: 1–9.Google Scholar
  9. Gjessing, E. T., 1976. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Aquatic Humus. Ann Arbor Science Publ., Ann Arbor MI, 120 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Harris, G. P., 1986. Phytoplankton Ecology. Chapman & Hall, London, 384 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Hutchinson, G. E., 1957. A Treatise on Limnology. Vol. 1: Geography, Physics and Chemistry. Wiley & Sons, New York, 1015 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Idso, S. B. & R. G. Gilbert, 1974. On the universality of the Poole and Atkins Secchi disk — light extinction equation. J. appl. Ecol. 11: 399–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jackson, T. A. & R. E. Hecky, 1980. Depression of primary productivity by humic matter in lake and reservoir waters of the boreal forest zone. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 37: 2300–2317.Google Scholar
  14. Jones, R. I., K. Salonen & H. De Haan, 1988. Phosphorus transformations in the epilimnion of humic lakes: abiotic interactions between dissolved humic materials and phosphate. Freshwat. Biol. 19: 357–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kämäri, J., M. Forsius & L. Kauppi, 1990. Statistically based lake survey: A representative picture of nutrient status in Finland. Verh. int. Ver. Limnol. 24: 663–666.Google Scholar
  16. Koenings, J. P. & F. F. Hooper, 1976. The influence of colloidal organic matter on iron and iron-phosphorus cycling in an acid bog lake. Limnol. Oceanogr. 21: 684–696.Google Scholar
  17. Meili, M., 1991a. Fluxes, pools and turnover of mercury in Swedish forest lakes. Wat. Air Soil Pollut. 56: 719–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Meili, M., 1991b. Mercury in forest lake ecosystems — bioavailability, bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Wat. Air Soil Pollut. 55: 131–157.Google Scholar
  19. Meili, M., Å. Iverfeldt & L. Håkanson, 1991. Mercury in the surface water of Swedish forest lakes: concentrations, speciation and controlling factors. Wat. Air Soil Pollut. 56: 439–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Menzel, D. H. & N. Corvin, 1965. The measurement of total phosphorus in seawater based on the liberation of organically bound fractions by persulfate oxidation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 10: 280–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Murphy, J. & J. P. Riley, 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analyt. chim. Acta 27: 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Olofsson, H., 1989. Torvexploatering på Stormyran — effekter på vattenmiljön. (Peat exploitation at Stormyran — effects on water quality). Report LIU 1989 B: 3, Institute of Limnology, University of Uppsala (in Swedish).Google Scholar
  23. Pennanen, V., 1988. Humic fractions in dimictic lakes in Finland. Dep. of Limnology, Univ. of Helsinki, Finland, Thesis, 28 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Preisendorfer, R. W., 1986. Secchi disk science: Visual optics of natural waters. Limnol. Oceanogr. 31: 909–926.Google Scholar
  25. SNV, 1986. Monitor 1986 (ed. C. Bernes): Sura och försurade vatten (Acidic and acidified waters, in Swedish). National Swedish Environmental Protection Board, Solna, 180 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Stainton, M. P., 1980. Errors in molybdenum blue methods for determining orthophosphate in freshwater. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 37: 472–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tranvik, L., 1988. Availability of dissolved organic carbon for planktonic bacteria in oligotrophic lakes of differing humic content. Microb. Ecol. 16: 311–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wetzel, R. G., 1983. Limnology. 2nd edn., W.B. Saunders College Publ., Philadelphia, 767 pp.Google Scholar
  29. Wilander, A., 1988. Organic substances in natural water. A comparison of results from different analytical methods (in Swedish, English abstract). Vatten 44: 217–244.Google Scholar
  30. Young, T. C. & W. G. Comstock, 1984. Direct effects and interactions involving iron and humic acid during formation of colloidal phosphorus. In Vernet, J. P. (ed.): Interactions between Sediments and Water, CEP Consultants Ltd., Edinburgh, UK., pp. 95–98.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Meili
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of LimnologyUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations