Sexual dimorphism and food habits of the clingfish, Diademichthys lineatus, and its dependence on host sea urchin Article Received: 16 August 1990 Accepted: 05 March 1991 DOI:
Cite this article as: Sakashita, H. Environ Biol Fish (1992) 34: 95. doi:10.1007/BF00004787 Synopsis
Stomach contents of the clingfish
Diademichthys lineatus, 10–56 mm standard length, revealed changes in food habits with growth and sexual differences. Soon after settlement, D. lineatus obtained food from their host sea urchin (genus Diadema) and other associated symbionts. They became less dependent on the host with growth. The juveniles ate pedicellariae and sphaeridia of the host and commensal copepods, whereas the adult fish ate burrowing bivalves in corals as well as tube feet of their host and eggs of a commensal shrimp. The young fish were transitional in their food habits. The change in food habits of the fish coincided with behavioral changes; i.e. enlargement of home ranges and less dependency on the host. The adult females, having a longer snout, ate shrimp eggs and bivalves more frequently than the adult males, which ate tube feet of the host more often than the females did. Sexual difference in food habits was apparent after the sex of the fish became identifiable by comparing snout shapes. The polygynous mating system of this species suggests that conspicuous sexual dimorphism might have developed under sexual selection. However, niche partitioning of food is also likely to be related to this sexual dimorphism. Key words Gobiesocidae Symbiosis Nutritional dependency on the host Sexual dimorphism Niche partitioning References cited
Allen, G.R. & W.A. Starck II. 1973. Notes on the ecology, zoogeography, and coloration of the gobiesocid clingfishes,
(Sauvage). Proc. Lin. Soc. N. S. W. 98: 95–97.
Briggs, J.C. 1955. A monograph of the clingfishes (order Xenopterigii). Stanford Ichthyol. Bull. 6: 1–224.
Briggs, J.C. 1966. A new clingfish of the genus
from the Red Sea. Bull. Sea Fish. Res. Sta. Haifa 42: 37–40.
Briggs, J.C. 1976. A new genus and species of clingfish from the western Pacific. Copeia 1976: 339–341.
Castro, P. 1971. Nutritional aspects of the symbiosis between
and its host in Hawaii,
. pp. 229–247.
: T.C. Cheng(ed.) Aspects of the Biology of Symbiosis, University Park Press, Baltimore.
Dix, T.G. 1969. Association between the echinoid,
(Val.) and the clingfish
Briggs. Pacif. Sci. 23: 332–336.
DeMartini, E.E. 1985. Social behavior and coloration changes in painted greenling,
Oxylebius pictus (Pisces: Hexagramidae). Copeia 1985: 966–975.
Fishelson, L. 1966. Preliminary observations on
Briggs, a clingfish associated with crinoids. Bull. Sea Fish. Res. Sta. Haifa 42: 41–48.
Gould, W.R. 1965. The biology and morphology of
, the emerald clingfish. Bull. Mar. Sci. 15: 165–188.
Hasting, P.A. 1988. Female choice and male reproductive success in the angel blenny,
(Teleostei: Chaenopsidae). Anim. Behav. 36: 115–124.
Hori, K., N. Fusetani, K. Hashimoto, K. Aida & J.E. Randall. 1979. Occurrence of a gramistine-like mucous toxin in the clingfish
. Toxicon 17: 418–424.
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Ueno & T. Yoshino. 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago (text). Tokai Univ. Press, Tokyo. 448 pp. (In Japanese).
Oku (Sakashita), H. 1989. Reproductive biology and food habits of the clingfish,
Diademichthys lineatus, associated with diadematid urchins. M.S. Thesis, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa. 43 pp.
Oku (Sakashita), H. 1990. Reproductive biology of the clingfish,
Diademichthys lineatus (Piesces: Gobiesocidae). Research Student Thesis, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa. 30 pp. (In Japanese).
Okuno, R., M. Nishiguchi & T. Kurio. 1962. Underwater observations of reef fishes with reference to their micro-habitats and behaviours. II. 2.
. J. Japan. Assoc. Zool. Gardens Aquarium. 3 (1–2): 16–17. (In Japanese).
Petersen, C.W. 1988. Male mating success, sexual size dimorphism, and site fidelity in two species of
(Labrisomidae). Env. Biol. Fish. 21: 173–183.
Pfaff, J.R. 1942. On a new genus and species of the family Gobiesocidae from the Indian Ocean, with observations on sexual dimorphism in the Gobiesocidae, and on the connection of certain gobiesocids with echinoids. Vidensk. Meddr. dansk naturh. Foren. Kjob. 105: 413–422.
Ralls, K. 1977. Sexual dimorphism in mammals: avian models and unanswered questions. Amer. Nat. 111: 917–938.
Robertson, D.R. & S.G. Hoffman. 1977. The roles of female mate choice and predation in the mating systems of some tropical labroid fishes. Z. Tierpsychol. 45: 298–320.
Shiogaki, M. & Y. Dotsu. 1971a. The life history of the clingfish,
. Japan. J. Ichthyol. 18: 76–84. (In Japanese).
Shiogaki, M. & Y. Dotsu. 1971b. The life history of the clingfish,
. Bull. Fac. Fish. Nagasaki Univ. 32: 7–16. (In Japanese).
Shiogaki, M. & Y. Dotsu. 1972. The spawning and larva rearing of the clingfish,
and the spawning of the clingfish,
. Bull. Fac. Fish. Nagasaki Univ. 34: 29–33. (In Japanese).
Teytaud, A.R. 1971. Food habits of the goby,
and the clingfish,
associated with echinoids in the Virgin Islands. Carib. J. Sci. 11: 41–45.
Thresher, R.E. 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City. 399 pp.
Thresher, R.E. & J.T. Moyer. 1983. Male success, courtship complexity and patterns of sexual selection in three congeneric species of sexually monochromatic and dichromatic damselfishes (Pisces: Pomacentridae). Anim. Behav. 31: 113–127.
Wells, A.W. 1979. Notes on the life history of the California clingfish,
(Gobiesociformes, Gobiesocidae). Calif. Fish and Game 65: 106–110.
Google Scholar Copyright information
© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992