Midwater spawning inHaplochromis chrysonotus (Boulenger) (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in Lake Malawi
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Haplochromis chrysonotus, a semipelagic shoaling cichlid from Lake Malawi, has been observed spawning in open water up to ten metres above the substratum. It is suggested that open water spawning without the establishment of a substratum-based territory eliminates competition with other species for breeding space and that it may be a stage in the evolution of a totally pelagic mode of life.
KeywordsMouth brooding Breeding behaviour Pelagic lifestyle Courtship Evolution
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