Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 201–202 | Cite as

Midwater spawning inHaplochromis chrysonotus (Boulenger) (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in Lake Malawi

  • David H. Eccles
  • Digby S. C. Lewis


Haplochromis chrysonotus, a semipelagic shoaling cichlid from Lake Malawi, has been observed spawning in open water up to ten metres above the substratum. It is suggested that open water spawning without the establishment of a substratum-based territory eliminates competition with other species for breeding space and that it may be a stage in the evolution of a totally pelagic mode of life.


Mouth brooding Breeding behaviour Pelagic lifestyle Courtship Evolution 

References cited

  1. Fryer, G. & T. D. Iles. 1972. The cichlid fishes of the Great Lakes of Africa: their biology and evolution. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh. 641 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Iles, T. D. 1960. A group of zooplankton feeders of the genusHaplochromis (Cichlidae) in Lake Nyasa. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 2: 257–280.Google Scholar
  3. Scheuermann, H. 1976. Some notes onLimnochromis — the ‘cypri-cichlids’. Buntbarsche Bulletin 55: 21–24.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • David H. Eccles
    • 1
  • Digby S. C. Lewis
    • 1
  1. 1.Fisheries Research UnitMonkey BayMalawi

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