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Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 125–137 | Cite as

Effects of salinity on the fatty acid compositions of total lipid and individual glycerophospholipid classes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) cells in culture

  • Douglas R. Tocher
  • John D. Castell
  • James R. Dick
  • John R. Sargent
Article

Abstract

Cells from a relatively stenohaline marine species, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) (TF) and an anadromous species, Atlantic salmon (AS) were cultured in media supplemented with NaCl to produce OPs varying from 300 to 500 mOsm kg−1 and the direct effects of OP (salinity) on the fatty acid compositions of the main glycerophospholipid classes were determined. The most dramatic effects of salinity on total lipid fatty acids were observed in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in TF cells. There was a graded decrease in the percentage of 18:2n-9, and consequently total n-9 PUFA, and concomitantly increased percentages of both total n-3 and n-6 PUFA with increasing salinity. The increased n-3 and n-6 PUFA was due to significantly increased percentages of the major fatty acids in each of these groups, namely 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6, respectively. The reciprocal changes in n-9 PUFA and n-3/n-6 PUFA in TF cell total lipid resulted in the percentage of total PUFA not being significantly affected by changes in salinity. The graded decrease in 18:2n-9 with increasing salinity in TF cells was observed in all the major glycerophospholipids but especially PE, PI and PS. Increasing salinity resulted in graded increases in the percentages of 22:6n-3 in PE and PS in TF cells. The quantitatively greatest increase in the percentage of n-6 PUFA in TF cells occurred with 20:4n-6 in PC, PE and PL. There were less significant changes in the fatty acid compositions of glycerophospholipids in AS cells. However, the proportion of total n-3 + n-6 PUFA in PE varied reciprocally with the proportion of dimethylacetals in response to salinity. Similar reciprocal changes between fatty acids in response to salinity were also evident in the quantitatively more minor glycerophospholipids PS and Pl. In PS, the percentage of 22:6n-3 was significantly lower at 400 mOsm kg−1 whereas the proportion of total monoenes was significantly higher at that salinity. A similar inverse relationship between total monoenes and 20:4n-6 (and, to a lesser extent total saturates) in response to salinity was noted in PI. The results show that environmental salinity, without whole-body physiological stimuli, has direct effects on the fatty acid composition of major glycerophospholipid classes in fish cells and that these effects differ in cells from different fish species

Keywords

Atlantic salmon turbot cell culture salinity fatty acids glycerophospholipids 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

analysis of variance

BHT

butylated hydroxytoluene

BSA

bovine serum albumin

DMA

dimethylacetals

EMEM

Eagle's minimal essential medium

FCS

fetal calf serum

GC

gas chromatography

HBSS

Hank's balanced salt solution (without Ca2+ and Mg2+)

OP

osmotic pressure

PC

phosphatidylcholine

PE

phosphatidylethanolamine

PI

phosphatidylinositol

PS

phosphatidylserine

PUFA

polyunsaturated fatty acid

TLC

thin-layer chromatography

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Copyright information

© Kugler Publications 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas R. Tocher
    • 1
  • John D. Castell
    • 1
  • James R. Dick
    • 1
  • John R. Sargent
    • 1
  1. 1.NERC Unit of Aquatic Biochemistry, School of Natural SciencesUniversity of StirlingStirlingScotland

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