Advertisement

Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 59–65 | Cite as

The effects of ration level on food retention time in juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris

  • Bradley M. Wetherbee
  • Samuel H. Gruber
Full paper

Synopsis

Fecal production was monitored to observe the effects of meal size on retention time of food in the digestive tracts of lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris. Initial appearance of feces occurred more rapidly when ration level was increased. The onset of fecal production was negatively correlated with rate of intake. Production of feces continued for a longer period of time when meal size was increased. Retention time of food was directly related to feeding rate, suggesting that the rate of digestion was constant. The correlation between retention time and intake on a percentage body weight basis was greater than the correlation between retention time and intake on an energy density basis. The use of agar to bind food may have delayed digestion and prolonged food passage for sharks fed an experimental diet.

Key words

Meal size Rate of energy intake Fecal production Transit time 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ash, R. 1985. Protein digestion and absorption. pp. 69–93. In: C.B. Cowey, A.M. Mackie & J.G. Bell (ED.) Nutrition and Feeding in Fish, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Beamish, F.W.H. 1972. Ration size and digestion in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides Lacépède. Can. J. Zool. 50: 153–164.Google Scholar
  3. Buddington, R.K. 1980. Hydrolysis-resistant organic matter as a reference for measurement of fish digestive efficiency. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 109: 653–656.Google Scholar
  4. Buddington, R.K. & J.P. Christofferson. 1985. Digestive and feeding characteristics of the chondrosteans. Env. Biol. Fish. 14: 31–41.Google Scholar
  5. Davies, P.M.C. 1964. The energy relations of Carassius auratus L. I. Food input and extraction efficiency at two experimental temperatures. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 12: 67–80.Google Scholar
  6. Elliott, J.M. 1976. Energy losses in the waste products of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). J. Anim. Ecol. 45: 561–580Google Scholar
  7. Fange, R. & D. Grove. 1979. Digestion. pp. 161–260. In: W.S. Hoar, D.J. Randall & J.R. Brett (ed.) Fish Physiology, Volume 8, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Fauconneau, B.G., G. Choubert, D. Blanc, J. Breque & P. Luquet. 1983. Influence of environmental temperature on flow rate of foodstuffs through the gastrointestinal tract of rainbow trout. Aquaculture 34: 27–39.Google Scholar
  9. Flowerdew, M.W. & D.J. Grove. 1979. Some observations of the effects of body weight, temperature, meal size and quality on gastric emptying time in the turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.) using radiography. J. Fish Biol. 14: 229–238.Google Scholar
  10. Grove, D.J., L.G. Loizides & J. Nott. 1978. Satiation amount, frequency of feeding and gastric emptying rate in Salmo gairdneri. J. Fish Biol. 12: 507–516.Google Scholar
  11. Hofer, R., H. Forstner & R. Rettenwander. 1982. Duration of gut passage and its dependence on temperature and food consumption in roach Rutilus rutilus L.: laboratory and field experiments. J. Fish Biol. 20: 289–299.Google Scholar
  12. Jobling, M. 1981. Dietary digestibility and the influence of food components on gastric evacuation in plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L. J. Fish Biol. 19: 29–36.Google Scholar
  13. Jobling, M. 1987. Influences of food particle size and dietary energy content on patterns of gastric evacuation in fish: Test of a physiological model on gastric emptying. J. Fish Biol. 30: 299–314.Google Scholar
  14. Jobling, M., D. Gwyther & D.J. Grove. 1977. Some effects of temperature, meal size and body weight on gastric evacuation time in the dab Limanda limanda (L.). J. Fish Biol. 10: 291–298.Google Scholar
  15. Kinne, O. 1960. Growth, food intake, and food conversion in a euryplastic fish exposed to different temperatures and salinities. Physiol. Zool. 33: 288–317.Google Scholar
  16. Lassuy, D.R. 1984. Diet, intestinal morphology, and nitrogen assimilation efficiency in the damselfish, Stegastes lividus, in Guam. Env. Biol. Fish. 10: 183–193.Google Scholar
  17. Lee, D.J. & G.B. Putnam. 1973. The response of rainbow trout to varying protein/energy ratios in a test diet. J. Nutr. 103: 916–922.Google Scholar
  18. Page, J.W. & J.W. Andrews. 1973. Interactions of dietary levels of protein and energy on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). J. Nutr. 103: 1339–1346.Google Scholar
  19. Ross, B. & K. Jauncey. 1981. A radiographic estimation of the effect of temperature on gastric emptying time in Sarotherodon niloticus (L.)× S. aureus (Steindachner) hybrids. J. Fish Biol. 19: 333–344.Google Scholar
  20. Schneider, B.H. & W.P. Flatt. 1975. The evaluation of feeds through digestibility experiments. University of Georgia Press, Athens. 423 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Sokal, R.R. & F.J. Rohlf. 1981. Biometry. 2nd edition, W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco. 859 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Solomon, D.J. & A.E. Brafield. 1972. The energetics of feeding, metabolism and growth of perch (Perca fluviatilis). Anim. Ecol. 41: 699–718.Google Scholar
  23. Storebakken, T. 1985. Binders in fish feeds. I. Effect of alginate and guar gum on growth, digestibility, feed intake and passage through the gastrointestinal tract in rainbow trout. Aquaculture 47: 11–26.Google Scholar
  24. Tyler, A.V. 1970. Rates of gastric emptying in young cod. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 27: 1177–1189.Google Scholar
  25. Wetherbee, B.M., S.H. Gruber & A.L. Ramsey. 1987. X-radiographic observation of food passage through digestive tracts of lemon sharks. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 116: 763–767.Google Scholar
  26. Windell, J.T. 1978. Digestion and the daily ration of fishes. pp. 159–183. In: S.D. Gerking (ed.) Ecology of Freshwater Fish Production, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Windell, J.T., J.W. Foltz & J.A. Sarokon. 1978. Effect of fish size, temperature, and amount fed on nutrient digestibility of a pelleted diet by rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 107: 613–616.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bradley M. Wetherbee
    • 1
  • Samuel H. Gruber
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Biology and Living Resources, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric ScienceUniversity of MiamiMiamiU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations