Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy with Concurrent Exercise Training: Contrary Evidence for an Interference Effect
- 3.4k Downloads
Over the last 30+ years, it has become axiomatic that performing aerobic exercise within the same training program as resistance exercise (termed concurrent exercise training) interferes with the hypertrophic adaptations associated with resistance exercise training. However, a close examination of the literature reveals that the interference effect of concurrent exercise training on muscle growth in humans is not as compelling as previously thought. Moreover, recent studies show that, under certain conditions, concurrent exercise may augment resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy in healthy human skeletal muscle. The purpose of this article is to outline the contrary evidence for an acute and chronic interference effect of concurrent exercise on skeletal muscle growth in humans and provide practical literature-based recommendations for maximizing hypertrophy when training concurrently.
KeywordsExercise Training Resistance Training Resistance Exercise Aerobic Exercise Endurance Athlete
The authors wish to thank Cory J. Greever and Liam F. Fitzgerald for their critical evaluations of the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The cost of publication for this work was defrayed by the Department of Kinesiology and College of Health and Social Sciences at San Francisco State University.
Conflict of interest
Kevin Murach and James Bagley declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.
- 1.American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s resource manual for guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 7th ed. Baltimore (MD): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013.Google Scholar
- 2.Delorme T. Restoration of muscle power by heavy-resistance exercise. J Bone Joint Surg. 1945;27(4):545–667.Google Scholar
- 14.Apro W, Moberg M, Hamilton DL, Ekblom B, van Hall G, Holmberg HC, et al. Resistance exercise-induced S6K1 kinase activity is not inhibited in human skeletal muscle despite prior activation of AMPK by high-intensity interval cycling. Am J Physiol End Metab. 2015;308(6):E470–81.Google Scholar
- 18.Carrithers JA, Carroll CC, Coker RH, Sullivan DH, Trappe TA. Concurrent exercise and muscle protein synthesis: implications for exercise countermeasures in space. Av Space Environ Med. 2007;78(5):457–62.Google Scholar
- 23.Koopman R, Zorenc AH, Gransier RJ, Cameron-Smith D, van Loon LJ. Increase in S6K1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise occurs mainly in type II muscle fibers. Am J Physiol End Metab. 2006;290(6):E1245–52.Google Scholar
- 25.Wilkinson SB, Phillips SM, Atherton PJ, Patel R, Yarasheski KE, Tarnopolsky MA, et al. Differential effects of resistance and endurance exercise in the fed state on signalling molecule phosphorylation and protein synthesis in human muscle. J Physiol. 2008;586(Pt 15):3701–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Benziane B, Burton TJ, Scanlan B, Galuska D, Canny BJ, Chibalin AV, et al. Divergent cell signaling after short-term intensified endurance training in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol End Metab. 2008;295(6):E1427–38.Google Scholar
- 29.Williams R, Neufer P. Regulation of gene expression in skeletal muscle by contractile activity. In: Rowell L, Shepherd J, editors. The handbook of physiology. New York: Oxford University Press; 1996. p. 1124–50.Google Scholar
- 34.Coffey VG, Shield A, Canny BJ, Carey KA, Cameron-Smith D, Hawley JA. Interaction of contractile activity and training history on mRNA abundance in skeletal muscle from trained athletes. Am J Physiol End Metab. 2006;290(5):E849–55.Google Scholar
- 40.Leveritt M, Abernethy P. Acute effects of high-intensity endurance exercise on subsequent resistance activity. J Str Cond Res. 1999;24:47–51.Google Scholar
- 50.Wojtaszewski JF, MacDonald C, Nielsen JN, Hellsten Y, Hardie DG, Kemp BE, et al. Regulation of 5′AMP-activated protein kinase activity and substrate utilization in exercising human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol End Metab. 2003;284(4):E813–22.Google Scholar
- 54.Sporer BC, Wenger HA. Effects of aerobic exercise on strength performance following various periods of recovery. J Str Cond Res. 2003;17(4):638–44.Google Scholar
- 77.Beelen M, Zorenc A, Pennings B, Senden JM, Kuipers H, van Loon LJ. Impact of protein coingestion on muscle protein synthesis during continuous endurance type exercise. Am J Physiol End Metab. 2011;300:E945–54.Google Scholar
- 87.Izquierdo-Gabarren M, De Txabarri Exposito RG, Garcia-pallares J, Sanchez-medina L, De Villarreal ES, Izquierdo M. Concurrent endurance and strength training not to failure optimizes performance gains. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(6):1191–9.Google Scholar
- 98.Abernethy PJ, Quigley BM. Concurrent strength and endurance training of the elbow flexors. J Str Cond Res. 1993;7:234–40.Google Scholar
- 99.Gravelle BL, Blessing DL. Physiological adaptation in women concurrently training for strength and endurance. J Str Cond Res. 2000;14:5–13.Google Scholar
- 101.Volpe SL, Walberg-Rankin J, Rodman KW, Sebolt DR. The effect of endurance running on training adaptations in women participating in a weight lifting program. J Str and Cond Res. 1993;7:101–7.Google Scholar