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  1. No Access


    MG-RAST, a Metagenomics Service for the Analysis of Microbial Community Structure and Function

    Molecular ecology approaches are rapidly advancing our understanding of microbial communities involved in the synthesis and degradation of hydrophobic organics involved with major consequences for applications...

    Elizabeth M. Glass, Folker Meyer (2015)

  2. No Access


    Clone Libraries of Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences for Characterization of Microbial Communities

    Constructing clone libraries from phylogenetic marker genes is one approach for assessing microbial community composition and diversity. Although more expensive and time-consuming than community fingerprinting...

    Mary Beth Leigh, Lee Taylor, Josh D. Neufeld (2015)

  3. No Access


    Computer-Guided Metabolic Engineering

    Computational methods and tools are nowadays widely applied for rational Metabolic Engineering approaches. However, what is still missing are clear advices on the right order of the application of these tools....

    M.A. Valderrama-Gomez, S. G. Wagner, A. Kremling (2015)

  4. No Access


    Definitive Endoderm Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Combined with Selective Elimination of Undifferentiated Cells by Methionine Deprivation

    Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) show a characteristic feature in that they are highly dependent on methionine metabolism. Undifferentiated human ESCs cannot survive under condition that methionine is deprive...

    Tomonori Tsuyama, Nobuaki Shiraki, Shoen Kume Ph.D. (2015)

  5. No Access


    Cultivating Fastidious Microbes

    Cultivation of microorganisms is necessary for testing hypotheses generated from cultivation-independent microbial community analysis and modern “omics” techniques, yet many of the organisms identified using t...

    J. Cameron Thrash, Jessica Lee Weckhorst, David M. Pitre (2015)

  6. No Access


    Conjugative Transfer in Staphylococcus aureus

    The acquisition of plasmids has led to a significant increase in antimicrobial resistance within the staphylococci. In order to study these plasmids effectively, one must be able move the plasmid DNA into gene...

    Cortney R. Halsey, Paul D. Fey (2015)

  7. No Access


    De Novo Assembly of Plasmids Using Yeast Recombinational Cloning

    Molecular cloning is a cornerstone of modern biology laboratories. However, traditional cloning can be time-consuming and problematic. We outline herein a method that utilizes the endogenous gap repair system ...

    Ameya A. Mashruwala, Jeffrey M. Boyd Ph.D. (2015)

  8. No Access


    Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays

    Experimental demonstration of regulatory protein interactions with the sequences upstream of potential target genes is an important element in gene expression studies. These experiments termed electrophoretic ...

    Sarah E. Rowe, James P. O’Gara (2015)

  9. No Access


    Batch Transduction of Transposon Mutant Libraries for Rapid Phenotype Screening in Staphylococcus

    In the gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, transposon mutagenesis is a useful method of screening large numbers of mutants for a given phenotype. However, constructing a transposon mutant library can ta...

    Katherine L. Maliszewski (2015)

  10. No Access


    Understanding Staphylococcal Nomenclature

    Bacteria are often grouped by a variety of properties, including biochemical activity, appearance, and more recently, nucleic acid sequence differences. In the case of human pathogens, significant work goes in...

    Christina N. Krute, Jeffrey L. Bose (2015)

  11. No Access


    Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends for RNA Transcript Sequencing in Staphylococcus

    Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) is a technique that was developed to swiftly and efficiently amplify full-length RNA molecules in which the terminal ends have not been characterized. Current usage of t...

    Eric Miller (2015)

  12. No Access


    Postembedding Immunohistochemistry for Inhibitory Neurotransmitters in Conjunction with Neuroanatomical Tracers

    This chapter is aimed at providing the reader with detailed instructions for combining postembedding immunohistochemistry for inhibitory transmitters with methods for characterizing neuronal connections at the...

    Miriam Barnerssoi, Paul J. May Ph.D. (2015)

  13. No Access


    Molecular Electron Microscopy in Neuroscience: An Approach to Study Macromolecular Assemblies

    Macromolecular assemblies play a critical role in the function of the nervous system. They contribute to a multitude of cellular processes such as cell type-specific gene expression, intracellular trafficking,...

    Bjoern Sander, Monika M. Golas (2015)

  14. No Access


    A Multifaceted Approach with Light and Electron Microscopy to Study Abnormal Circuit Maturation in Rodent Models

    In order to better understand circuit function and dysfunction during early brain formation, multiple approaches at the light and electron microscopic levels have been utilized to greatly enhance our knowledge...

    Kimberly L. Simpson, Yi Pang, Rick C. S. Lin (2015)

  15. No Access


    Dual-Labeling Immuno-Electron Microscopic Method for Identifying Pre- and Postsynaptic Profiles in Mammalian Brain

    Mammalian nervous system communicates mainly through chemical synapses with neurotransmitters in the presynaptic axon terminal and their receptors on the postsynaptic dendritic targets. We describe here an imm...

    Xiao-Bo Liu, Hwai-Jong Cheng (2015)

  16. No Access


    Generation and Characterization of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Patients with mtDNA Mutations

    Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from patient cells has revolutionized disease modeling in recent years. One research area, where disease models have previously been scarce, is disorders with mutat...

    Riikka H. Hämäläinen, Anu Suomalainen (2015)

  17. No Access


    Knock-In-Leave-Behind (KILB): Genetic Grafting of Protease-Cleaving Sequences into Permissive Sites of Proteins with a Tn5-Based Transposition System

    Endowing proteins with proteolytic cleavage sites without affecting their native function when the cognate protease is not present is a challenging engineering effort for fundamental studies and biotechnologic...

    Belén Calles, Víctor de Lorenzo (2015)

  18. No Access


    Single-Cell Biotechnology for Uncultured Microorganisms

    Raman-activated cell sorting (RACS), which identifies and isolates cells according to their Raman spectra, would provide a powerful tool to explore uncultured bacteria in environment without cultivation. Singl...

    Peiran Zhang, Yizhi Song, Ian P. Thompson, Bo Ma, Jian Xu, Wei E. Huang (2015)

  19. No Access


    Laboratory Protocols for Investigating Microbial Souring and Potential Treatments in Crude Oil Reservoirs

    Oilfield souring is most frequently caused by the activities of sulfate-reducing microorganisms as they reduce sulfate to sulfide as their terminal electron-accepting process. Souring poses serious health and ...

    Yuan Xue, Gerrit Voordouw, Lisa M. Gieg (2015)

  20. No Access


    Imaging Pluripotency: Time-Lapse Analysis of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    The current view of the pluripotent state is that of a transient, dynamic state, maintained by the balance between opposing cues. Understanding how this dynamic state is established in pluripotent cells and ho...

    Anna Pezzarossa, Ana M. V. Guedes, Domingos Henrique, Elsa Abranches (2015)

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