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  1. No Access


    Detection of Autoantibodies Against Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein in Multiple Sclerosis and Related Diseases

    Autoantibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) occur in a proportion of patients with different inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system, such as childhood multiple s...

    Melania Spadaro, Edgar Meinl (2015)

  2. No Access


    Studies of the Ecophysiology of Single Cells in Microbial Communities by (Quantitative) Microautoradiography and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (MAR-FISH)

    Microautoradiography (MAR) in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful method of obtaining information about the ecophysiology of probe-defined single cells in mixed microbial c...

    Marta Nierychlo, Jeppe Lund Nielsen, Per Halkjær Nielsen (2015)

  3. No Access


    Lipidomic Analysis of Bacteria by Thin-Layer Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic or amphipathic molecules that play key biological and physiological functions, such as acting as structural components of cell membranes, serving as energy storage sou...

    Howard Goldfine, Ziqiang Guan (2015)

  4. No Access


    Methods for Recombinant Rhamnolipid Production

    Rhamnolipids are glycolipidic microbial biosurfactants with potential, e.g., as emulsifier or foaming agents in industrial applications. Currently rhamnolipids are produced with pathogenic wild-type strains su...

    Till Tiso, Andrea Germer, Benjamin Küpper, Rolf Wichmann, Lars M. Blank (2015)

  5. No Access


    Real-Time PCR Approaches for Analysis of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Communities

    Since the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the 1980s, our knowledge of environmental microbial diversity and function has increased greatly. However, quantification of particular environme...

    Boyd A. McKew, Cindy J. Smith (2015)

  6. No Access


    Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Computer-Aided Drug Discovery

    Molecular dynamics simulations of biomolecules, proteins especially, have emerged as an important tool in the study of the conformational change, flexibility, and dynamics. These simulations, especially when c...

    Ryan C. Godwin, Ryan Melvin, Freddie R. Salsbury Jr. (2015)

  7. No Access


    In Vitro Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells into Functional β Islets Under 2D and 3D Culture Conditions and In Vivo Preclinical Validation of 3D Islets

    Since the advent of pluripotent stem cells, (embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells), applications of such pluripotent stem cells are of prime importance. Indeed, scientists are involved in studying the ...

    Bipasha Bose, Sudheer Shenoy P (2015)

  8. No Access


    Limbal Stromal Tissue Specific Stem Cells and Their Differentiation Potential to Corneal Epithelial Cells

    From the derivation of the first human embryonic stem (hES) cell line to the development of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells; it has become evident that tissue specific stem cells are able to differentiate...

    Kishore Reddy Katikireddy, Ula V. Jurkunas (2015)

  9. No Access


    A Human Colonic Crypt Culture System to Study Regulation of Stem Cell-Driven Tissue Renewal and Physiological Function

    The intestinal epithelium is one of the most rapidly renewing tissues in the human body and fulfils vital physiological roles such as barrier function and transport of nutrients and fluid. Investigation of gut...

    Alyson Parris, Mark R. Williams (2015)

  10. No Access


    Applying Shear Stress to Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Thorough understanding of the effects of shear stress on stem cells is critical for the rationale design of large-scale production of cell-based therapies. This is of growing importance as emerging tissue engi...

    Russell P. Wolfe, Julia B. Guidry, Stephanie L. Messina, Tabassum Ahsan (2015)

  11. No Access


    26S and PA28-20S Proteasome Activity in Cytosolic Extracts from Embryonic Stem Cells

    The proteasome is a complex multisubunit protease that plays a major role in the degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Proteasome function is one of the key players regulating the proteome and it is vit...

    Malin Hernebring (2015)

  12. No Access


    Generation and Purification of Definitive Endoderm Cells Generated from Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into cells of the definitive endoderm requires an in vitro gastrulation event. Differentiated somatic cells derived from this germ layer may then be used for cell repl...

    Ulf Diekmann, Ortwin Naujok (2015)

  13. No Access


    Classification and Clustering on Microarray Data for Gene Functional Prediction Using R

    Gene expression data (microarrays and RNA-sequencing data) as well as other kinds of genomic data can be extracted from publicly available genomic data. Here, we explain how to apply multivariate cluster and c...

    Liliana López Kleine, Rosa Montaño, Francisco Torres-Avilés (2015)

  14. No Access


    Integrated Analysis of Transcriptomic and Proteomic Datasets Reveals Information on Protein Expressivity and Factors Affecting Translational Efficiency

    Integrated analysis of large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic data can provide important insights into the metabolic mechanisms underlying complex biological systems. In this chapter, we present methods to a...

    Jiangxin Wang, Gang Wu, Lei Chen, Weiwen Zhang (2015)

  15. No Access


    Generation of Embryonic Stem Cells in Rabbits

    Here we have described a procedure to generate embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines from rabbit preimplantation blastocysts. We have also provided detailed procedures to characterize the resulting ESC lines, such a...

    Marielle Afanassieff, Pierre Osteil, Pierre Savatier (2015)

  16. No Access


    Generation of a Knockout Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Line Using a Paired CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Engineering Tool

    CRISPR/Cas9, originally discovered as a bacterial immune system, has recently been engineered into the latest tool to successfully introduce site-specific mutations in a variety of different organisms. Compose...

    Rahel Wettstein, Maxime Bodak, Constance Ciaudo Ph.D. (2015)

  17. No Access


    Pancreatic Differentiation from Murine Embryonic Stem Cells

    Pluripotent stem cells are considered as a cell source for replacement therapies for pancreatic beta cells and other organs.

    Daisuke Sakano, Nobuaki Shiraki, Shoen Kume Ph.D (2015)

  18. No Access


    Gene Transfer into Pluripotent Stem Cells via Lentiviral Transduction

    Recombinant lentiviral vectors are powerful tools to stably manipulate human pluripotent stem cells. They can be used to deliver ectopic genes, shRNAs, miRNAs, or any possible genetic DNA sequence into diving ...

    Ortwin Naujok, Ulf Diekmann, Matthias Elsner (2015)

  19. No Access


    Differentiation of Adipocytes in Monolayer from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Obesity and its comorbidity incidence have increased worldwide during the past 10 years. In consequence, researchers have drawn their attention to the understanding of adipocyte differentiation. Several cellul...

    Ixchelt Cuaranta-Monroy, Zoltan Simandi, Laszlo Nagy (2015)

  20. No Access


    Stereology and Computer-Based Image Analysis Quantifies Heterogeneity and Improves Reproducibility for Grading Reticulin in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Evaluation of bone marrow fibrosis in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) is subject to interobserver inconsistency, and cutpoints for determination of therapy are dependent on manual pathologist grading of ret...

    Mohamed E. Salama, Erik Hagendorn, Sherrie L. Perkins, Jeff L. Kutok, A. Etman (2015)

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