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  1. No Access

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    Oil Droplet Generation and Incubation for Biodegradation Studies of Dispersed Oil

    Biodegradation of oil in the marine water column is mainly associated with oil dispersions. The operational use of chemical dispersants may therefore enhance oil biodegradation in seawater. The dispersant trea...

    Odd Gunnar Brakstad, Mimmi Throne-Holst, Trond Nordtug (2016)

  2. No Access

    Protocol

    New Trends and Perspectives in the Function of Non-neuronal Acetylcholine in Crypt–Villus Organoids in Mice

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter that is present in central, parasympathetic, and neuromuscular synapses of mammals. However, non-neuronal ACh is also predicted to function as a local cell signaling m...

    Toshio Takahashi (2016)

  3. No Access

    Protocol

    Organoid Culture of Lingual Epithelial Cells in a Three-Dimensional Matrix

    A novel lingual epithelial organoid culture system using a three-dimensional (3D) matrix and growth factors has recently been established. In the culture system, organoids with multilayered squamous keratinize...

    Hiroko Hisha, Hiroo Ueno (2016)

  4. No Access

    Protocol

    Expansion of Human Airway Basal Stem Cells and Their Differentiation as 3D Tracheospheres

    Although basal cells function as human airway epithelial stem cells, analysis of these cells is limited by in vitro culture techniques that permit only minimal cell growth and differentiation. Here, we report ...

    Robert E. Hynds, Colin R. Butler, Sam M. Janes, Adam Giangreco (2016)

  5. No Access

    Protocol

    Generation of Functional Kidney Organoids In Vivo Starting from a Single-Cell Suspension

    Novel methods in developmental biology and stem cell research have made it possible to generate complex kidney tissues in vitro that resemble whole organs and are termed organoids. In this chapter we describe ...

    Valentina Benedetti*, Valerio Brizi*, Christodoulos Xinaris Ph.D. (2016)

  6. No Access

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    Oncogenic Transformation of Human-Derived Gastric Organoids

    The culture of organoids has represented a significant advancement in the gastrointestinal research field. Previous research studies have described the oncogenic transformation of human intestinal and mouse ga...

    Nina Bertaux-Skeirik, Jomaris Centeno, Jian Gao, Joel Gabre, Yana Zavros Ph.D. (2016)

  7. No Access

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    Study Bacteria–Host Interactions Using Intestinal Organoids

    The intestinal epithelial cells function to gain nutrients, retain water and electrolytes, and form an efficient barrier against foreign microbes and antigens. Researchers employed cell culture lines derived f...

    Yong-guo Zhang, Jun Sun Ph.D., A.G.A.F. (2016)

  8. No Access

    Protocol

    Murine Colonic Organoid Culture System and Downstream Assay Applications

    Colonic organoids, three-dimensional colonic crypts grown in vitro that show realistic microanatomy, have many potential applications for studying physiology, developmental biology, and pathophysiology of inte...

    Yang-Yi Fan, Laurie A. Davidson, Robert S. Chapkin (2016)

  9. No Access

    Protocol

    Critical Periods of Development in Teratology

    Several years ago Wilson (1973) postulated his principles of teratogenesis, which have been revisited previously. However, there is a strong need to evaluate critically and summarize recent advances in the are...

    Padmanahban Rengasamy M.S., Ph.D., F.I.Biol (Lond) (2016)

  10. No Access

    Protocol

    Experimental Methods for Functional Studies of microRNAs in Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders

    Pharmacological treatments for psychiatric illnesses are often unsuccessful. This is largely due to the poor understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders. We are particularly interested...

    Vladimir Jovasevic, Jelena Radulovic (2016)

  11. No Access

    Protocol

    Isolation and Quantitative Analysis of Axonal Small Noncoding RNAs

    The success of axonal regeneration of injured neurons depends largely on the intrinsic capacity for intra-axonal protein synthesis that is precisely regulated in a spatial and temporal manner. Recent studies h...

    Hak Hee Kim, Monichan Phay, Soonmoon Yoo (2016)

  12. No Access

    Protocol

    Bioreactor Design to Emulate Deep-Sea Hydrocarbon Releases Including Formation of Gas Hydrates

    The environmental and economic ramifications of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) incident have motivated research on hydrocarbon releases in deep-sea environments. The main objective of this contribution is to prov...

    Maria Nikolopoulou, Nicolas Kalogerakis (2016)

  13. No Access

    Protocol

    Isolating and Screening Subcellular miRNAs in Neuron

    Since local protein synthesis is proposed to explain spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression in highly polarized cells such as neurons, various mechanisms for regulating protein synthesis are sugges...

    Min Jeong Kye (2016)

  14. No Access

    Protocol

    Continuous Delivery of Oligonucleotides into the Brain

    The growing field of RNA neurobiology dictates development and improvement of effective and reliable in vivo techniques to address the function of particular microRNA molecules within the brain. Here we descri...

    Ilya A. Vinnikov, Andrii Domanskyi, Witold Konopka (2016)

  15. No Access

    Protocol

    Analysis of MicroRNAs and their Potential Targets in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons Treated with the Anesthetic Propofol

    Growing evidence demonstrates that prolonged exposure to general anesthetics, including propofol, induces widespread neuroapoptosis followed by long-term memory and learning disabilities in animal models. The ...

    Danielle Twaroski, Yasheng Yan, Jessica M. Olson, Mingyu Liang, Zeljko J. Bosnjak (2016)

  16. No Access

    Protocol

    In Ovo Electroporation of miRNA Plasmids to Silence Genes in a Temporally and Spatially Controlled Manner

    The ability to spatially and temporally control gene expression during development is crucial for the elucidation of gene function in vivo. The use of RNA interference (RNAi)-based technologies in combination ...

    Nicole H. Wilson, Esther T. Stoeckli (2016)

  17. No Access

    Protocol

    Protocols for Investigating the Microbial Communities of Oil and Gas Reservoirs

    Recent studies have shown that microorganisms and microbial activity in oil reservoirs and the associated production systems are much more prominent than was originally thought. These findings, in conjunction ...

    Nicolas Tsesmetzis, Michael J. Maguire, Ian M. Head, Bart P. Lomans (2016)

  18. No Access

    Protocol

    Genetic, Genomic and Systemic Analyses for Pure Cultures

    Although considered to be only a minute fraction of global biodiversity, the handling of the culturable microbiota is still essential for exploring the interface of the bacterial world with lipids, hydrocarbon...

    Víctor de Lorenzo (2016)

  19. No Access

    Protocol

    Introduction to Petroleum, Hydrocarbon, and Lipid Analysis

    In nature, petroleum, hydrocarbons, and lipids typically occur as complex mixtures of structurally diverse compounds with different physical and chemical properties. Notably, the occurrence of hydrocarbons and...

    Heinz Wilkes (2016)

  20. No Access

    Protocol

    High Pressure Cultivation of Hydrocarbonoclastic Aerobic Bacteria

    Hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms capable to use hydrocarbons as a sole source of carbon and energy are widely distributed in marine environments (Yakimov et al., Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:257–266, 2007) occu...

    Smedile Francesco, La Cono Violetta, Genovese Maria, Ruggeri Giovacchino, Denaro Renata (2016)

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