- Thomas H. Painter
- … show all 1 hide
Definition and introduction
Changes in snow grains and their bonds contribute to changes in snow’s albedo, microwave scattering, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, and gas adsorption. The concept of the snow grain would seem to be easily defined and yet the complexity of the snow matrix and forms resulting from initial conditions and metamorphism renders an exact definition impossible (Mätzler, 1997). This lack of a simple definition results largely because the degree of sintering between the (always) monocrystalline particles varies enormously and concave or highly asymmetric forms are not uncommon. The concept of the snow grain to a remote sensor is substantially different from that to an avalanche forecaster, and their respective defined sizes for the same snow can vary by two orders of magnitude. Here, the concept of snow grains is described through the characterization of shape and size. (Note: sintering is described in the entry on snow bonding.)
We tend to conceptualize ...
- Adamson, A. W., and Dormant, L. M., 1966. Adsorption of nitrogen on ice at 78 Degrees K. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 88, 2055–2057.
- Bartlett, S. J., Rüedi, J.-D., Craig, A., and Fierz, C., 2008. Assessment of techniques for analyzing snow crystals in two dimensions. Annals of Glaciology, 48, 103–112.
- Fierz, C., Armstrong, R. L., Durand, Y., Etchevers, P., Greene, E., McClung, D. M., Mishimura, K., Satyawali, P. K., and Sodratov, S. A., 2009. The International Classification for Seasonal Snow on the Ground. Paris: UNESCO-IHP.
- Fily, M., Bourdelles, B., Dedieu, J. P., and Sergent, C., 1997. Comparison of in situ and Landsat Thematic Mapper derived snow grain characteristics in the Alps. Remote Sensing of Environment, 59(3), 452–460.
- Flin, F., Brzoska, J. B., Coeurjolly, D., Pieritz, R. A., Lesaffre, B., Coleou, C., Lamboley, P., Teytaud, O., Vignoles, G. L., and Delesse, J. F., 2005. Adaptive estimation of normals and surface area for discrete 3-D objects: Application to snow binary data from X-ray tomography. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 14(5), 585–596.
- Haran, T., Bohlander, J., Scambos, T., Painter, T. H., and Fahnestock, M., 2005. MODIS Mosaic of Antarctica (MOA) Image Map. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center.
- Kerbrat, M., Pinzer, B., Huthwelker, T., Gaggeler, H. W., Ammann, M., and Schneebeli, M., 2008. Measuring the specific surface area of snow with X-ray tomography and gas adsorption: comparison and implications for surface smoothness. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8(5), 1261–1275.
- Kokhanovsky, A. A., and Zege, E. P., 2004. Scattering optics of snow. Applied Optics, 43(7), 1589–1602, doi:10.1364/AO.43.001589.
- Legagneux, L., Cabanes, A., and Dominé, F., 2002. Measurement of the specific surface area of 176 snow samples using methane adsorption at 77 K. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, 4335–4349.
- Macke, A., and Mishchenko, M., 1996. Applicability of regular particle shapes in light scattering calculations for atmospheric ice particles. Applied Optics, 35(21), 4291–4296.
- Matzl, M., and Schneebeli, M., 2006. Measuring specific surface area of snow by near infrared photography. Journal of Glaciology, 52(179), 558–564.
- Mätzler, C., 1997. Autocorrelation functions of granular media with free arrangement of spheres, spherical shells or ellipsoids. Journal of Applied Physics, 81(3), 1509–1517.
- Mishchenko, M., Dlugach, J. M., Yanovitskij, E. G., and Zakharova, N. T., 1999. Bidirectional reflectance of flat, optically thick particulate layers: an efficient radiative transfer solution and applications to snow and soil surfaces. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 63, 409–432.
- Nolin, A. W., and Dozier, J., 2000. A hyperspectral method for remotely sensing the grain size of snow. Remote Sensing of Environment, 74(2), 207–216.
- Painter, T. H., Paden, B., and Dozier, J., 2003. Automated spectro-goniometer: a spherical-robot for the measurement of the directional reflectance of snow. Reviews of Scientific Instruments, 74(12), 5179–5188.
- Painter, T. H., and Dozier, J., 2004, Measurements of the hemispherical-directional reflectance of snow at fine spectral and angular resolution, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 109(D18): D1811510.1029/2003JD004458.
- Painter, T. H., Molotch, N. P., Cassidy, M. P., Flanner, M. G., and Steffen, K., 2007. Contact spectroscopy for the determination of stratigraphy of snow grain size. Journal of Glaciology, 53(180), 121–127.
- Painter, T. H., Rittger, K., McKenzie, C., Slaughter, P., Davis, R. E., and Dozier, J., 2009. Retrieval of subpixel snow covered area, grain size, and albedo from MODIS. Remote Sensing of Environment, 113, 868–879, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2009.01.001.
- Scambos, T., Haran, T., Fahnestock, M., Painter, T. H., and Bohlander, J., 2007. MODIS-based Mosaic of Antarctica (MOA) data sets: Continent-wide surface morphology and snow grain size. Remote Sensing of Environment, 111(2–3), 242–257, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2006.12.020.
- Snow Grains
- Reference Work Title
- Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers
- pp 1050-1053
- Print ISBN
- Online ISBN
- Series Title
- Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series
- Series ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Copyright Holder
- Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- eBook Packages
To view the rest of this content please follow the download PDF link above.