Basal Sediment Evacuation by Subglacial Drainage Systems
- Darrel A. Swift
- … show all 1 hide
Basal sediment: The debris layer that exists at the ice–bedrock interface of a glacier or ice sheet and that is produced by glacial erosion of the underlying bedrock.
Basal sediment evacuation: The removal of basal sediment from the ice–bed interface by glacial and/or glaciofluvial sediment transport; most frequently used to describe the flushing of basal sediment from the ice–bedrock interface by subglacial water.
Subglacial drainage system: The network of drainage pathways at the ice–bed interface that convey water to the glacier margin or terminus.
Contemporary observations and theoretical analyses demonstrate that, for Temperate Glaciers (qv), the entrainment and transport of basal sediment by fluvial processes dominates all other glacial sediment transport (Sediment Entrainment, Transport, and Deposition, qv) processes (see Hallet et al., 1996; Alley et al., 1997). Basal sediment evacuation by the Subglacial Drainage System ...
- Alley, R. B., Cuffey, K. M., Evenson, E. B., Strasser, J. C., Lawson, D. E., and Larson, G. J., 1997. How glaciers entrain and transport basal sediment: physical constraints. Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 1017–1038.
- Alley, R. B., Lawson, D. E., Larson, G. J., Evenson, E. B., and Baker, G. S., 2003. Stabilizing feedbacks in glacier-bed erosion. Nature, 424, 758–760.
- Anderson, S. A., Fernald, K. M. H., Anderson, R. S., and Humphrey, N. F., 1999. Physical and chemical characteristation of a spring flood event, Bench Glacier, Alaska, USA: evidence for water storage. Journal of Glaciology, 45, 177–189.
- Beecroft, I., 1983. Sediment transport during an outburst from Glacier de Tsidjiore Nouve, Switzerland, 16–19 June, 1981. Journal of Glaciology, 29, 185–190.
- Bezinge, A., Clark, M. J., Gurnell, A. M., and Warburton, J., 1989. The management of sediment transported by glacial meltwater streams and its significance for the estimation of sediment yield. Annals of Glaciology, 13, 1–5.
- Bogen, J., 1980. The hysteresis effect of sediment transport systems. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, 34, 45–54.
- Bogen, J., 1988. A monitoring programme of sediment transport in Norwegian rivers. In Bordas, M. P., and Walling, D. E. (eds.), Sediment Budgets, IAHS Publication No. 174, pp. 149–159.
- Bogen, J., 1989. Glacial sediment production and development of hydro-electric power in glacierized areas. Annals of Glaciology, 13, 6–11.
- Bogen, J., 1996. Erosion rates and sediment yields of glaciers. Annals of Glaciology, 22, 48–52.
- Bridge, C. W., and Rannie, W., 1967. Glacio-hydrology, discharge and sediment transport in the decade glacier area, Baffin Island, N.W.T. Geografiska Annaler, 49A, 268–282.
- Church, M., 1972. Baffin Island Sandurs: A study of Arctic fluvial processes. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, 216, 208.
- Clifford, N. J., Richards, K. S., Brown, R. A., and Lane, S. N., 1995. Scales of variation of suspended sediment concentration and turbidity in a glacial meltwater stream. Geografiska Annaler, 77A, 45–65.
- Collins, D. N., 1979. Sediment concentration in meltwaters as an indicator of erosion processes beneath an alpine glacier. Journal of Glaciology, 23, 247–257.
- Collins, D. N., 1989. Seasonal development of subglacial drainage and suspended sediment delivery to meltwaters beneath an Alpine glacier. Annals of Glaciology, 13, 45–50.
- Collins, D. N., 1990. Seasonal and annual variations of suspended sediment transport in meltwaters draining from an Alpine glacier. In Lang, H., and Musy, A. (eds.), Hydrology in Mountainous Regions 1: Hydrological Measurements; the Water Cycle, IAHS Publication No. 193, pp. 439–446.
- Cook, S. J., Waller, R. I., and Knight, P. G., 2006. Glaciohydraulic supercooling: the process and its significance. Progress in Physical Geography, 30, 577–588.
- Denner, J. C., Lawson, D. E., Larson, G. J., Evenson, E. B., Alley, A. B., Strasser, J. C., and Kopczynski, S., 1999. Seasonal variability in hydrologic-system response to intense rain events, Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, USA. Annals of Glaciology, 28, 267–271.
- Gomez, B., 1987. Bedload. In Gurnell, A. M., and Clark, M. J. (eds.), Glacio-fluvial Sediment Transfer: An Alpine Perspective. Chichester: Wiley, pp. 355–376.
- Gurnell, A. M., 1982. The dynamics of suspended sediment concentration in a proglacial stream system. In Glen, J. W. (ed.), Hydrological Aspects of Alpine and High-Mountain Areas. New York: Wiley, pp. 59–85.
- Gurnell, A. M., 1987a. Fluvial sediment yield from Alpine, glacierized catchments. In Gurnell, A. M., and Clark, M. J. (eds.), Glacio-fluvial Sediment Transfer: An Alpine Perspective. Chichester: Wiley, pp. 415–420.
- Gurnell, A. M., 1987b. Suspended sediment. In Gurnell, A. M., and Clark, M. J. (eds.), Glacio-fluvial Sediment Transfer: An Alpine Perspective. Chichester: Wiley, pp. 305–354.
- Gurnell, A. M., 1995. Sediment yield from Alpine glacier basins. In Foster, I. D. L., Gurnell, A. M., and Webb, B. W. (eds.), Sediment and Water Quality in River Catchments. Chichester: Wiley, pp. 407–435.
- Gurnell, A. M., and Warburton, J., 1990. The significance of suspended sediment pulses for estimating suspended sediment load and identifying suspended sediment sources in Alpine glacier basins. In Lang, H., and Musy, A. (eds.), Hydrology in Mountainous Regions. 1: Hydrological Measurements; the Water Cycle, IAHS Publication No. 193, pp. 463–470.
- Gurnell, A. M., Clark, M. J., and Hill, C. T., 1992. Analysis and interpretaion of patterns within and between hydroclimatological time series in an Alpine glacier basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 17, 821–839.
- Hallet, B., Hunter, L., and Bogen, J., 1996. Rates of erosion and sediment evacuation by glaciers: a review of field data and their implications. Global and Planetary Change, 12, 213–235.
- Hammer, K. M., and Smith, N. D., 1983. Sediment production and transport in a proglacial stream, Hilda Glacier, Alberta, Canada. Boreas, 12, 91–106.
- Hodgkins, R., 1996. Seasonal trends in suspended sediment transport from and Arctic glacier, and implications for drainage system structure. Annals of Glaciology, 22, 147–151.
- Hodson, A. J., and Ferguson, R. I., 1999. Fluvial suspended sediment transport from cold and warm-based glaciers in Svalbard. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 24, 957–974.
- Hodson, A. J., Tranter, M., Dowdeswell, J. A., Gurnell, A. M., and Hagen, J. O., 1997. Glacier thermal regime and suspended sediment yield: a comparison of two high-Arctic glaciers. Annals of Glaciology, 24, 32–37.
- Hooke, R. L., Wold, B., and Hagen, J. O., 1985. Subglacial hydrology and sediment transport at Bondhusbreen, southwest Norway. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 96, 388–397.
- Humphrey, N. F., and Raymond, C. F., 1994. Hydrology, Erosion and Sediment Production in a Surging Glacier – Variegated Glacier, Alaska, 1982–83. Journal of Glaciology, 40, 539–552.
- Humphrey, N., Raymond, C., and Harrison, W., 1986. Discharges of turbid water during min-surges of Variagated Glacier, Alaska, USA. Journal of Glaciology, 32, 195–207.
- Kamb, B., and Engelhardt, H., 1987. Waves of accelerated motion in a glacier approaching surge: the mini-surges of Variagated Glacier, Alaska, USA. Journal of Glaciology, 33, 27–46.
- Lawler, D. M., Dolan, M., Tomasson, H., and Zophoniasson, S., 1992. Temporal variability of suspended sediment flux from a subarctic glacial river, southern Iceland. In Bogen, J., Walling, D. E., and Day, T. (eds.), Erosion and Sediment Transport Monitoring Programmes in River Basins, IAHS Publication No. 210, pp. 233–243.
- Liestøl, O., 1967. Storbreen glacier in Jotunheimen, Norway. Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter, 141, 1–63.
- Østrem, G., Bridge, C. W., and Rannie, W. F., 1967. Glacio-hydrology, discharge and sediment transport in the decade glacier area, Baffin Island, N.W.T. Geografiska Annaler, 49A, 268–282.
- Østrem, G., 1975. Sediment transport in glacial meltwater streams. In Jopling, A. V., and McDonald, B. C. (eds.), Glaciofluvial and Glaciolacustrine Sedimentation. Tusla: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralologists. Special Publication No. 23, pp. 101–122.
- Raymond, C. F., Benedict, R. J., Harrison, W. D., Echelmeyer, K. A., and Sturn, M., 1995. Hydrological discharges and motion of Fels and Black Rapids Glaciers, Alaska, USA: implications for the structure of their drainage systems. Journal of Glaciology, 41, 290–304.
- Richards, K., 1984. Some process observations on suspended sediment dynamics in Storbregrova, Jotunheim. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 9, 101–112.
- Schneider, T., and Bronge, C., 1996. Suspended sediment transport in the Storglaciären drainage basin. Geografiska Annaler, 78A, 155–161.
- Swift, D. A., Nienow, P. W., Spedding, N., and Hoey, T. B., 2002. Geomorphic implications of subglacial drainage system configuration: rates of basal sediment evacuation controlled by seasonal drainage system evolution. Sedimentary Geology, 149, 5–19.
- Swift, D. A., Nienow, P. W., and Hoey, T. B., 2005a. Basal sediment evacuation by subglacial meltwater: suspended sediment transport from Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 30, 867–883.
- Swift, D. A., Nienow, P. W., Hoey, T. B., and Mair, D. W. F., 2005b. Seasonal evolution of runoff from Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland and implications for glacial geomorphic processes. Journal of Hydrology, 309, 133–148.
- Vatne, G., Etzelmuller, B., Sollid, J. L., and Ødegård, R. S., 1995. Hydrology of a polythermal glacier, Erikbreen, northern Spitsbergen. Nordic Hydrology, 26, 169–190.
- Warburton, J., and Fenn, C. R., 1994. Unusual flood events from an Alpine glacier: observations and deductions on generating mechanisms. Journal of Glaciology, 40, 176–186.
- Willis, I. C., Richards, K. S., and Sharp, M. J., 1996. Links between proglacial stream suspended sediment dynamics, glacier hydrology and glacier motion At Midtdalsbreen, Norway. Hydrological Processes, 10, 629–648.
- Basal Sediment Evacuation by Subglacial Drainage Systems
- Reference Work Title
- Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers
- pp 85-90
- Print ISBN
- Online ISBN
- Series Title
- Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series
- Series ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Copyright Holder
- Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- eBook Packages
To view the rest of this content please follow the download PDF link above.