2012, p 1528

Genetic Knock-out

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A gene knockout is a genetically engineered organism that carries one or more genes in its chromosomes that have been made inoperative (have been “knocked out” of the organism). Also known as knockout organisms or simply knockouts (knockout mice), they are used in learning about a gene that has been sequenced, but which has an unknown or incompletely known function. Researchers draw inferences about gene function from the difference between the knockout organism and normal individuals.

Orphan Nuclear Receptors