Adenylyl Cyclases

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Synonyms

Adenylyl cyclase (preferred); Adenylate cyclase; Adenyl cyclase (original); ATP:pyrophosphate lyase; Cyclizing (E.C.4.6.1.1.)

Definition

Adenosine 3′:5′‐monophosphate (cAMP) regulates effects in all eukaryotic cells, principally through activation of cAMP‐dependent protein kinase (PKA), but also through cAMP‐gated ion channels (CNGs) and select guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epacs) (Fig. 1). Cellular levels of cAMP levels reflect the balance of activities of adenylyl cyclases (AdCy: 5′‐ATP ⎨ cAMP + PPi) and cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDE: cAMP ⎨ 5′‐AMP). Adenylyl cyclases occur throughout the animal kingdom and play diverse roles in cell regulation [1].Adenylyl Cyclases. Figure 1

Synthesis, degradation, and actions of cAMP.

Basic Characteristics

Classes of Adenylyl Cyclases

Adenylyl cyclases belong to the larger class of purine nucleotide cyclases. These have been divided into classes I–VI [2]. Class I cyclases include those in gram negative ...