Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna

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Morgagni-Stewart-Morel syndrome; Metabolic craniopathy; Endostosis crani; Enostosis cranii; Endocraniosis; Hyperostosis calvaria interna; HCI; Hyperostosis calvariae diffusa; HCD; HFI

Definition and Characteristics

Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) is a condition involving progressive symmetric irregular cortical thickening (Fig. 1) of inner table of the frontal bone of human skull by smooth, rounded exostosis covered by dura projecting into the cranial cavity.Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna. Figure 1

A woman with HFI having depression in the midline of frontal bone.

These exostoses are generally less than 1 cm thick and extend to parietal bones, orbital roofs and may involve both tables of the skull by sparing areas occupied by superior sagittal sinus and venous channels. Even in severe cases, HFI does not cross suture lines and there would be clear boundary along the middle meningeal artery [1].

Morgagni and Santorini first described HFI in ...