Paraneoplastic Syndromes

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Definition and Characteristics

Paraneoplastic syndromes can be defined as a whole of systemic signs and symptoms related to cancer (Table 1).

These signs and symptoms are directly related to substances that the tumor produces or to a host’s reaction to the cancer. Paraneoplastic syndromes may appear in the patients during the natural history of the cancer or before the initial diagnosis.


Rheumatic Paraneoplastic Syndromes

Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with lymphatic malignancies in 80% of cases. Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis are associated with cancer in 15% of cases. Breast and lung cancers are the most frequent malignancy associated. Amyloidosis is associated to cancer in 15% of cases, while vasculitis only in 5% (usually in patients with lymphatic malignancy) [1].

Mucocutaneous Paraneoplastic Syndromes

Some dermatoses are frequently associated to hematological diseases (15–20%) while other mucocutaneous syndromes appear in patients ...