Definition and Characteristics
The term cold nodule indicates that this thyroid lesion shows reduced technetium uptake compared with normal thyroid tissue on scintiscan  (Fig. 1).
Thyroid Nodules, Cold. Figure 1
The lack of scintigraphic Technetium uptake in CTNs correlates with a lack of NIS cell membrane insertion, (a) Scintigraphy, (b) NIS localized in the cell membrane of hot nodule, (c) NIS localized intracellularly in cold nodule.
In agreement with the decreased scintigraphic uptake, a defective cell membrane targeting of NIS has been reported for CTNs . Moreover, a markedly increased proliferation, increased expression of histone mRNAs and cell cycle-associated genes like cyclin D1, cyclin H/cyclin depende...