Aortopulmonary Septal Defects

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Aortopulmonary window; Aortopulmonary fenestration or fistula; Aortic septal defect; Partial persistent truncus arteriosus; APSD

Definition and Characteristics

Aortopulmonary septal defect (APSD) is a rare congenital cardiac abnormality defined as a communication between adjacent portions of the ascending aorta (AAo) and the pulmonary artery (PA), with the presence of separate semilunar valves. APSD may exist as an isolated lesion, the rest (47−77%) are found in conjunction with other congenital heart disease, including patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defects (20%) tetralogy of Fallot (6%), right aortic arch (5–20%), transposition of the great arteries (10%), interrupted aortic arch (8%), coarctation of the aorta (13–20%) and coronary artery anomalies (23%) [1]. APSD is subdivided into three subtypes. Type I occurs between the origin of the main PA and the posteromedial wall of AAo immediately above the sinus of Valsalva. Type I ...