Birkhoff, George David
- Ian T. Durham
- … show all 1 hide
BornOverisel, Michigan, USA, 21 March 1884
DiedCambridge, Massachusetts, USA, 12 November 1944
American mathematician George Birkhoff developed two theorems with astronomical applications, one (the ergodic theorem) relevant to systems where one wants to take averages over time and space, and one (Birkhoff’s theorem) showing that some results of Newtonian gravitation also apply to general relativistic models of the Universe under certain circumstances. He was the son of David Birkhoff, a doctor, and Jane Gertrude Droppers. At the age of 12, Birkhoff entered the Lewis Institute, a West Side Chicago liberal arts and sciences college that merged in 1940 with the Armour Institute to become what is now the Illinois Institute of Technology. In 1901, a year before his graduation from Lewis Institute, he began a correspondence with mathematician Harry Vandiver on number theory that would lead to his first publication in 1904.
Upon graduation from Lewis Institute, Birkhoff entered the University of ...
- Birkhoff, George David (1942). “What Is the Ergodic Theorem?” American Mathematical Monthly 49: 222–226.
- —(1950). Collected Mathematical Papers. 3 Vols. Providence, Rhode Island: American Mathematical Society.
- Carroll, Bradley W. and Dale A. Ostlie (1996). An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics. Reading: Addison Wesley Longman.
- Kaplan, James and Aaron Strauss (1976). “Dynamical Systems: Birkhoff and Smale.” Mathematics Teacher 69: 495–501.
- Kragh, Helge (1996). Cosmology and Controversy: The Historical Development of Two Theories of the Universe. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
- Mac Lane, Saunders (1994). “Jobs in the 1930s and the Views of George D. Birkhoff.” Mathematical Intelligencer 16, no. 3: 9–10.
- Morse, Marston (1946). “George David Birkhoff and His Mathematical Work.” Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 52: 357–391.
- Phillips, Ralph (1994). “Reminiscences about the 1930s.” Mathematical Intelligencer 16, no. 3: 6–8.
- Vandiver, H. S. (1963). “Some of My Recollections of George David Birkhoff.” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 7: 271–283.
- Wilson, Edwin B. (1945). “George David Birkhoff.” Science 102: 578–580.
- Birkhoff, George David
- Reference Work Title
- Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers
- pp 228-229
- Print ISBN
- Online ISBN
- Springer New York
- Copyright Holder
- Springer Science+Business Media New York
- Additional Links
- eBook Packages
- Editor Affiliations
- 1. Department of Earth Science, University of Northern Iowa
- 2. University of California, Irvine School of Physical Sciences
- 3. Rice University
- 4. Whitman College
- 5. York Univesity
- 6. University of Wisconsin
- 7. University of Oklahoma
- 8. Harvard University
- Ian T. Durham (286)
- Author Affiliations
- 286. Saint Anselm College, Manchester, NH, 03102, USA
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