Birkhoff, George David
 Ian T. Durham
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BornOverisel, Michigan, USA, 21 March 1884
DiedCambridge, Massachusetts, USA, 12 November 1944
American mathematician George Birkhoff developed two theorems with astronomical applications, one (the ergodic theorem) relevant to systems where one wants to take averages over time and space, and one (Birkhoff’s theorem) showing that some results of Newtonian gravitation also apply to general relativistic models of the Universe under certain circumstances. He was the son of David Birkhoff, a doctor, and Jane Gertrude Droppers. At the age of 12, Birkhoff entered the Lewis Institute, a West Side Chicago liberal arts and sciences college that merged in 1940 with the Armour Institute to become what is now the Illinois Institute of Technology. In 1901, a year before his graduation from Lewis Institute, he began a correspondence with mathematician Harry Vandiver on number theory that would lead to his first publication in 1904.
Upon graduation from Lewis Institute, Birkhoff entered the University of ...
 Birkhoff, GD (1942) What Is the Ergodic Theorem?. American Mathematical Monthly 49: pp. 222226
 —(1950). Collected Mathematical Papers. 3 Vols. Providence, Rhode Island: American Mathematical Society.
 Carroll, BW, Ostlie, DA (1996) An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics. Addison Wesley Longman, Reading
 Kaplan, J, Strauss, A (1976) Dynamical Systems: Birkhoff and Smale. Mathematics Teacher 69: pp. 495501
 Kragh, H (1996) Cosmology and Controversy: The Historical Development of Two Theories of the Universe. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey
 Mac Lane, S (1994) Jobs in the 1930s and the Views of George D. Birkhoff. Mathematical Intelligencer 16: pp. 910
 Morse, M (1946) George David Birkhoff and His Mathematical Work. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 52: pp. 357391
 Phillips, R (1994) Reminiscences about the 1930s. Mathematical Intelligencer 16: pp. 68
 Vandiver, HS (1963) Some of My Recollections of George David Birkhoff. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 7: pp. 271283
 Wilson, EB (1945) George David Birkhoff. Science 102: pp. 578580
 Title
 Birkhoff, George David
 Reference Work Title
 Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers
 Pages
 pp 228229
 Copyright
 2014
 DOI
 10.1007/9781441999177_160
 Print ISBN
 9781441999160
 Online ISBN
 9781441999177
 Publisher
 Springer New York
 Copyright Holder
 Springer Science+Business Media New York
 Additional Links
 Topics
 eBook Packages
 Editors

 Thomas Hockey ^{(1)}
 Virginia Trimble ^{(2)}
 Thomas R. Williams ^{(3)}
 Katherine Bracher ^{(4)}
 Richard A. Jarrell ^{(5)}
 Jordan D. Marché II ^{(6)}
 JoAnn Palmeri ^{(7)}
 Daniel W. E. Green ^{(8)}
 Editor Affiliations

 1. Department of Earth Science, University of Northern Iowa
 2. University of California, Irvine School of Physical Sciences
 3. Rice University
 4. Whitman College
 5. York Univesity
 6. University of Wisconsin
 7. University of Oklahoma
 8. Harvard University
 Authors

 Ian T. Durham ^{(286)}
 Author Affiliations

 286. Saint Anselm College, Manchester, NH, 03102, USA
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