Theory of Mind in Animals
- Dr. Josep Call
- … show all 1 hide
Mental state attribution; Mindreading
Premack and Woodruff (1978) defined possessing a theory of mind as the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others. Three main categories of mental states have been distinguished: perceptual, epistemic, and volitional. Perceptual mental states include things like seeing and attending. Epistemic states include things like thoughts, knowledge, and beliefs. Volitional states include intentions, goals, and desires.
When humans observe another individual witnessing an event, they encode information about the individual’s body and face orientation, the presence and nature of objects, and the spatial relation between the observer and the objects. Additionally, they also infer that observers are capable (or incapable) of seeing something. Whereas it is undisputed that nonhumans process information of the first kind, researchers disagree on whether they also infer men
- Call, J., & Santos, L. (in press). Understanding other minds. In J. Mitani, J. Call, P. Kappeler, R. Palombit, & J. Silk (Eds.), The evolution of primate societies. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
- Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? 30 years later. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 187–192.
- Emery, N. J. (2000). The eyes have it: The neuroethology, function and evolution of social gaze. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 581–604.
- Premack, D., & Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 515–526.
- Smith, J. D. (2009). The study of animal metacognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13, 389–396.
- Theory of Mind in Animals
- Reference Work Title
- Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning
- pp 3316-3319
- Print ISBN
- Online ISBN
- Springer US
- Copyright Holder
- Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
- Additional Links
- eBook Packages
- Editor Affiliations
- 1. Faculty of Economics and Behavioral Sciences, Department of Education, University of Freiburg
- Dr. Josep Call (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103, Leipzig, Germany
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