- Prof. Sandra P. Marshall
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Problem solving; Visual representation
Schema-based instruction is a method of teaching problem solving that emphasizes both the semantic structure of the problem and its mathematical structure. It utilizes recognition of key words (as does a simple key-word strategy) but goes further than simple recognition to stress understanding of the situation represented in the problem.
Most schema-based instruction has targeted arithmetic word problems or algebra word problems. Research has shown that students have difficulty solving these problems for many reasons. A large number of errors can be traced to improper understanding of the problem itself, rather than inability to do the correct arithmetic. In the 1980s and 1990s, many psychological and mathematical educational researchers became interested in the basic cognitive issues required in problem solving (see schema-based problem solving) and began to investigate ...
- Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (1991). Cognitive load theory and the format of instruction. Cognition & Instruction, 8, 293–332.
- Griffin, C., & Jitendra, A. (2008). Word-problem solving instruction in inclusive third-grade mathematics classrooms. Journal of Educational Research, 102, 187–201.
- Jitendra, A., Star, J., Starosta, K., Leh, J., Sood, S., Caskie, G., Hughes, C., & Mack, T. (2009). Improving seventh grade students’ learning of ratio and proportion: The role of schema-based instruction. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34, 250–264.
- Marshall, S. (1995). Schemas in problem solving. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Schema-Based Instruction
- Reference Work Title
- Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning
- pp 2945-2946
- Print ISBN
- Online ISBN
- Springer US
- Copyright Holder
- Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
- Additional Links
- eBook Packages
- Editor Affiliations
- 1. Faculty of Economics and Behavioral Sciences, Department of Education, University of Freiburg
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, 6475 Alvarado Road, Suite 132, 92120, San Diego, CA, USA
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