Endometrial Carcinoma

Abstract

Endometrial carcinoma is the most common invasive neoplasm of the female genital tract and the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in women in the USA. In 2008, it is estimated there will have been 40,100 new cases and 7,470 deaths resulting from this neoplasm. These figures represent an estimated 6% of the new cancer cases and 3% of the cancer deaths in women [377]. Worldwide, approximately 150,000 cases are diagnosed each year, making endometrial carcinoma the fifth most common cancer in women [304, 305]. The incidence of endometrial cancer varies widely throughout the world. The highest rates occur in North America and Europe, whereas rates in developing countries and Japan are four to five times lower. The incidence is also about twice as high in whites compared to blacks. However, the proportion of endometrial cancer related deaths is higher in blacks due to a relative increase in the incidence of high-risk endometrial carcinoma in the black population. The reason for this is not well understood but access to and quality of health care as well as genetics are considered possible factors [17].