Sex Cord-Stromal, Steroid Cell, and Other Ovarian Tumors with Endocrine, Paraendocrine, and Paraneoplastic Manifestations

Abstract

This category includes all ovarian neoplasms that contain granulosa cells, fibroblasts, theca cells (and their luteinized derivatives), Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, singly or in various combinations and in varying degrees of differentiation. Those who believe that all these cell types are derived from the “specialized stroma” of the genital ridge favor the term gonadal stromal tumors for these neoplasms [110]. Others, recognizing that many embryologists favor the participation of coelomic and mesonephric epithelium in the formation of sex cords, which are the proximal precursors of granulosa cells and Sertoli cells, favor the term sex cord-stromal tumors, and it is now the most widely accepted designation [144].